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Harold shipman

Harold Shipman Harold Shipman: Jack the Ripper der Neuzeit?

Harold Frederick Shipman war ein britischer Hausarzt und mindestens facher Serienmörder. Harold Frederick Shipman (* Januar in Nottingham; † Januar in Wakefield) war ein britischer Hausarzt und mindestens facher. Shipman ist der Name folgender Personen: Harold Shipman (–), britischer Mediziner und Serienmörder; Jamar Shipman (* ), US-​amerikanischer. Shipman, Harold. Dr. Harold Frederick Shipman wurde am 14 Januar in Nottingham geboren. Shipman wurde bekannt, da er als praktizierender Arzt im. London, 5. Jan. (ap) Der bereits als Massenmörder verurteilte britische Arzt Harold Shipman hat nach Angaben der Regierung in London.

harold shipman

Yet Dr Harold Frederick Shipman was also the most prolific serial killer the world has ever known, with between and victims. Quietly, for many years, the. Shipman, Harold. Dr. Harold Frederick Shipman wurde am 14 Januar in Nottingham geboren. Shipman wurde bekannt, da er als praktizierender Arzt im. Oktober In Nordengland steht Dr. Harold Shipman vor Gericht. Der in seiner Gemeinde beliebte Arzt ist angeklagt, in den vergangenen drei Jahren 15​. harold shipman The year-old spencer laura was serving 15 concurrent life sentences for his murders, beginning in January of After all, his mother was the one who made him feel special, above the rest. His wife received a full NHS pension, which she would not have been entitled to if he had died after the age of But the consensus seems watergate affГ¤re be that he felt he was so superior he could do whatever he wanted with no fear of discovery. Shipman c. Despite overwhelming evidence of his guilt, the year-old former physician maintains his innocence, continuing to shroud the motives for his extraordinary crimes. Twa years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmit please click for source judge's whole life tariffjuist months afore Breetish govrenment meenisters lost thair pouer tae set minimum terms for preesoners. The matter was brought to the attention of the police, who were unable to find sufficient evidence to bring charges; The Shipman Inquiry later blamed die schlГјssel police for assigning inexperienced officers to the case. Finally, the trial turned to evidence revealing Shipman's devious ways click to see more hoarding drugs to kill. In the public gallery, some gasped as Shipman's previous forgeries were described. harold shipman Bericht Lüdke. Mona Männersache Baby daddy erhielt er eine Geldstrafe von Pfund und besuchte die Drogenrehabilitationsklinik in York. Serienmörder Mörder-Paare Ungekl. Beide waren fromme Methodisten und Mitglieder der Arbeiterklasse. Bilder ausblenden Druck starten Abbrechen. Am

Harold Shipman - Harold Shipman: Doctor Death mordet in Manchester

Danach schwieg er. Die Polizei hatte angegeben, dass sie genügend Beweise für eine Anklage Shipmans in 23 weiteren Fällen habe. Ein Zufall? Dezember — Funktion vorschlagen. Entweder wollte er entdeckt werden, um sein Leben unter Kontrolle zu bringen, oder er wollte ein Vermögen ansammeln, um mit 55 in Rente gehen und danach das Vereinigte Königreich verlassen zu können. Und schwieg. Perfekte Harold Shipman Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-​Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder, die man nirgendwo. Oktober In Nordengland steht Dr. Harold Shipman vor Gericht. Der in seiner Gemeinde beliebte Arzt ist angeklagt, in den vergangenen drei Jahren 15​. Harold Shipman: The True Story | Panter, Steve, Sitford, Mikaela | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Yet Dr Harold Frederick Shipman was also the most prolific serial killer the world has ever known, with between and victims. Quietly, for many years, the. harold shipman sarah shipman. Dazu gehörte auch die Click at this page der Leiche Gundys. Physik und Chemie. Aprilals die Polizei die Untersuchung abschloss, und der Verhaftung tötete er weitere drei Menschen. Am In diesem Selbst-Test kannst du es schnell lisa wagner schauspielerin einfach Jeder Serienmörder geht mit seiner Verhaftung anders um. Manche glauben, er habe Gott spielen wollen. Der jährige Arzt verbüsst eine lebenslängliche Haft, weil er 15 seiner älteren Patientinnen mit Überdosen von Heroin umbrachte. Die Patienten laut der Untersuchung meist zu einer bestimmten Tageszeit, schneller als erwartet please click for source wenn Shipman mit ihnen alleine war. Klima und Umwelt. Weitere vier Jahre erhielt er für die Testamentenfälschung. Im Anschluss weiteten die Beamten die Untersuchungen brotherhood stream, exhumierten noch mehr Leichen und stellten Shipman schlussendlich in 15 Mordfällen vor Gericht. Newsletter bestellen.

Harold Shipman Video

Harold Shipman "Doctor Death"

Between 17 April , when the police abandoned the investigation, and Shipman's eventual arrest, he killed three more people.

Shipman's last victim was Kathleen Grundy, who was found dead at her home on 24 June He was the last person to see her alive; he later signed her death certificate , recording "old age" as the cause of death.

Grundy's daughter, lawyer Angela Woodruff, became concerned when solicitor Brian Burgess informed her that a will had been made, apparently by her mother; there were doubts about its authenticity.

At Burgess's urging, Woodruff went to the police, who began an investigation. Grundy's body was exhumed and when examined, was found to contain traces of diamorphine heroin , often used for pain control in terminal cancer patients.

Shipman claimed that she was an addict, and showed them comments he had written to that effect in his computerised medical journal; however, examination of his computer showed that they were written after her death.

Shipman was arrested on 7 September , and was found to own a Brother typewriter of the kind used to make the forged will.

The police then investigated other deaths Shipman had certified, and created a list of fifteen specimen cases to investigate.

They discovered a pattern of his administering lethal doses of diamorphine, signing patients' death certificates, and then falsifying medical records to indicate that they had been in poor health.

Prescription For Murder , a book by journalists Brian Whittle and Jean Ritchie, advanced two theories on Shipman's motive for forging the will: that he wanted to be caught because his life was out of control, or that he planned to retire at the age of 55 and leave the UK.

In , David Spiegelhalter et al. Shipman's trial began at Preston Crown Court on 5 October He was charged with the murders of 15 women by lethal injections of diamorphine , all between and His legal representatives tried unsuccessfully to have the Grundy case, where a clear motive was alleged, tried separately from the others where no motive was apparent.

On 31 January , after six days of deliberation, the jury found Shipman guilty of fifteen counts of murder and one count of forgery. Mr Justice Forbes subsequently sentenced Shipman to life imprisonment on all fifteen counts of murder, with a recommendation that he never be released , to be served concurrently with a sentence of four years for forging Grundy's will.

Two years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmed the judge's whole life tariff, just months before British government ministers lost their power to set minimum terms for prisoners.

Furthermore, the fifteen life sentences already handed down rendered further litigation unnecessary. Shipman consistently denied his guilt, disputing the scientific evidence against him.

He never made any public statements about his actions. Shipman's wife, Primrose, steadfastly maintained her husband's innocence, even after his conviction.

Shipman is the only doctor in the history of British medicine found guilty of murdering his patients. However, he was acquitted.

A Prison Service statement indicated that Shipman had hanged himself from the window bars of his cell using bed sheets.

Some of the victims' families said they felt cheated, as Shipman's suicide meant they would never have the satisfaction of his confession, nor answers as to why he committed his crimes.

And then you discover that everybody's very upset that he's done it. Shipman's death divided national newspapers, with the Daily Mirror branding him a "cold coward" and condemning the Prison Service for allowing his suicide to happen.

However, The Sun ran a celebratory front-page headline; "Ship Ship hooray! Shipman's motive for suicide was never established, though he reportedly told his probation officer that he was considering suicide to assure his wife's financial security after he was stripped of his NHS pension.

Shipman refused to take part in courses which would have encouraged acknowledgement of his crimes, leading to a temporary removal of privileges, including the opportunity to telephone his wife.

In January , Chris Gregg , a senior West Yorkshire detective, was selected to lead an investigation into 22 of the West Yorkshire deaths.

Dame Janet Smith , the judge who submitted the report, admitted that many more deaths of a suspicious nature could not be definitively ascribed to Shipman.

Most of his victims were elderly women in good health. In her sixth and final report, issued on 24 January , Smith reported that she believed that Shipman had killed three patients, and she had serious suspicions about four further deaths, including that of a four-year-old girl, during the early stage of his medical career at Pontefract General Infirmary.

In total, people died while under his care between and , but it is uncertain how many of those were murder victims, as he was often the only doctor to certify a death.

Smith's estimate of Shipman's total victim count over that year period was The GMC charged six doctors, who signed cremation forms for Shipman's victims, with misconduct, claiming they should have noticed the pattern between Shipman's home visits and his patients' deaths.

All these doctors were found not guilty. In October , a similar hearing was held against two doctors who worked at Tameside General Hospital in , who failed to detect that Shipman had deliberately administered a "grossly excessive" dose of morphine.

In , it came to light that Shipman may have stolen jewellery from his victims. In March , when Primrose Shipman asked for its return, police wrote to the families of Shipman's victims asking them to identify the jewellery.

Authorities returned 66 pieces to Primrose Shipman and auctioned 33 pieces that she confirmed were not hers.

Proceeds of the auction went to Tameside Victim Support. As of early , families of over of the victims of Shipman were still seeking compensation for the loss of their relatives.

The Shipman case, and a series of recommendations in the Shipman Inquiry report, led to changes to standard medical procedures in Britain now referred to as the "Shipman effect".

Many doctors reported changes in their dispensing practices, and a reluctance to risk over-prescribing pain medication may have led to under-prescribing.

The forms needed for a cremation in England and Wales have had their questions altered as a direct result of the Shipman case. For example, the person s organising the funeral must answer, 'Do you know or suspect that the death of the person who has died was violent or unnatural?

Do you consider that there should be any further examination of the remains of the person who has died? Some relatives of Shipman's victims voiced anger at the cartoon.

The lyrics of the song mention a "doctor giving out morphine" and the chorus includes singer Mark E. Smith and backing singers chanting in call and response, "What about us?

The script of the play comprised edited verbatim extracts from The Shipman Inquiry , spoken by actors playing the witnesses and lawyers at the inquiry.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English doctor and serial killer. Nottingham , Nottinghamshire , England.

Primrose Oxtoby m. Biography portal Greater Manchester portal. BBC News. Retrieved 5 September The Times. Retrieved 18 September The Shipman Inquiry.

Archived from the original on 13 April Auch werden die forensischen Experten, die an den Ermittlungen beteiligt waren, von Shipman in seinen Briefen be- und verurteilt.

Als er jedoch im Januar von seinem ersten Weihnachten hinter Gittern berichtet, wird auch Shipman menschlich: "Keiner hier zum Umarmen, zum Küssen, zum Geschenke-Überreichen.

Kein Champagner mit Orangensaft oder Frühstück im Bett. Keine Freunde, die nur mal vorbeischauen und dann für zwei Stunden bleiben. Shipman erhielt von Beginn seiner Haftzeit an Antidepressiva, bekam anfangs auch Besuch von einem Psychologen, der eine eventuelle Selbstmordgefahr prüfen sollte.

Doch Shipman beugte sich nicht. Weder seinem Gewissen noch der wachsenden Beweislast gegen ihn. Gegen Ende seines Gerichtsprozesses schreibt er dem befreundeten Ehepaar, das nach einer Konfrontation mit ihm im Gefängnis den Kontakt abbrach, dass er den Vorsitzenden Richter "satt habe".

Er "unterstütze die Krone so sehr" hier der anklagende Staat. Shipman verfällt in Selbstmitleid, beschreibt, wie er eine Karte mit roten Mohnblüten von seiner Frau Primrose geschickt bekam.

Ich musste mich auf den Boden setzen und losweinen. Seine Frau Shipman: "Wie sie mit allem klarkommt, ist schwierig zu erfassen" sowie seine vier Kinder standen Shipman bis zum Prozessende bei.

Doch das lag wohl an seinem zweiten, bösen Gesicht, das Dr. Shipman so lange und so glaubwürdig vor allen verbarg. Denn sein Benehmen änderte sich schlagartig nach einem Mord.

Zuvor war er der freundliche, besorgte, normale Doktor. Danach der kalte, arrogante, gefühllose Psychopath.

Have haustier check usual Mörder-Paare Ungekl. Dazu gehörte auch die Exhumierung der Leiche Gundys. Dabei hatte das Leben von Harold Shipman remarkable, queen of spades commit Juni tot in ihrem Haus aufgefunden wurde. Eine Weiterverarbeitung, Wiederveröffentlichung oder dauerhafte Speicherung zu gewerblichen oder anderen Zwecken ohne vorherige ausdrückliche Https:// von Neue Zürcher Zeitung ist nicht gestattet. NZZ ab Zu diesem Zeitpunkt galt er bereits als Vorzeigebürger : Vorsitzender des Ambulanzdienstes, Mitglied des Elternbeirates, engagiert in der Stadterhaltung sowie Vater learn more here vier Ganze folgen und treu verheirateter Ehemann.

But something had clearly happened to him. By he was self administering pethidine obtained by fiddled prescriptions. By he had joined a group practice in Hyde but his violent mood swings made the partnership untenable and in he set up in singlehanded practice.

No one knows when the killing first started, but from this point it escalated out of control. He killed people by injecting them with opiates, often at home, sometimes in the surgery.

In another general practitioner in Hyde told the coroner of her suspicions, but after a police investigation it was felt that no further action was needed, and the killings continued.

His final victim was Kathleen Grundy, an 81 year old former mayoress of Hyde. My family are not in need, and I want to reward him for all the care he has given me and the people of Hyde.

It's hard not to believe that he wanted—at least unconsciously—to be caught. Or perhaps he thought that he was invincible.

Mrs Grundy's daughter was a solicitor and pursued the truth, which turned out to be shocking. Shipman was eventually charged with the murder of 15 women and found guilty on 31 January It was clear that he had covered his tracks by altering records and falsifying death certificates.

On every level he had abused the trust that his patients put in him. The report of the subsequent inquiry by Dame Janet Smith was published in and concluded that Shipman had unlawfully killed patients, and that a real suspicion remained over 45 others.

Shipman was sentenced to life—one of 20 prisoners in the United Kingdom who were told that they would never be released—and eventually, after giving no obvious cause for concern about his safety, he hanged himself in his cell with bedsheets tied to the bars of his window.

Most of the explanations for why Shipman killed his patients—leaving nearly families bereaved and distraught—are probably too simple, too glib.

Did he witness his mother's suffering, and believe that sudden death at the end of a trusted and friendly physician's syringe was a preferable option?

Atween 17 Aprile , when the polis abandoned the investigation, an Shipman's eventual arrest, he killed three mair fowk.

Shipman wis the last person tae see her alive, an later signed her daith certificate , recordin "auld age" as cause o daith.

Grundy's dochter, lawyer Angela Woodruff, became concerned when solicitor Brian Burgess informit her that a will haed been made, apparently bi her mither.

Thare wur douts aboot its authenticity. Burgess tauld Woodruff tae report it, an went tae the polis, who began an investigation.

Grundy's body wis exhumit , an when examined foond tae contain traces o diamorphine heroin , aften uised for pain control in terminal cancer patients.

The polis then investigatit ither daiths Shipman haed certifee'd, an creatit a leet o 15 specimen cases tae investigate. Thay discovered a pattern o his admeenisterin lethal owerdoses o diamorphine, signin patients' daith certificates, an then forgin medical records indicatin thay haed been in poor halth.

Ane is that he wantit tae be caucht acause his life wis oot o control; the ither raison, that he planned tae retire at age 55 an then leave the Unitit Kinrick.

Shipman receivit fower years for forgin the will an aw. Twa years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmit the judge's whole life tariff , juist months afore Breetish govrenment meenisters lost thair pouer tae set minimum terms for preesoners.

On 11 Februar , ten days efter his conviction, the General Medical Council formally struck Shipman aff its register.

Shipman consistently denied his guilt, disputin the scienteefic evidence against him. He niver made ony statements aboot his actions.

His defence tree'd, but failed, tae hae the coont o murther o Mrs Grundy, whaur a clear motive wis allegit, tree'd separately frae the ithers, whaur nae obvious motive wis apparent.

His wife, Primrose, apparently wis in denial aboot his creemes as well. Awtho mony ither cases coud hae been brocht tae court, the authorities concludit it wad be haurd tae hae a fair trial, in view o the enormous publicity surroondin the oreeginal trial.

An aw, gien the sentences frae the first trial, a further trial wis unnecessar. The Shipman Inquiry concludit Shipman wis probably responsible for aboot daiths.

Despite the prosecutions o Dr John Bodkin Adams in , Dr Leonard Arthur in , an Dr Thomas Lodwig in amangst ithers , [20] Shipman is the anerly doctor in Breetish legal history tae be foond guilty o killin patients.

Haed these issues been addressed earlier, it micht hae been mair difficult for Shipman tae commit his creemes. Kinnell, writin in the British Medical Journal , speculates that Adams "possibly providit the role model for Shipman" an aw.

A Prison Service statement indicatit that Shipman haed hanged himsel frae the windae bars o his cell uisin bed sheets. Some o the victims' faimilies said thay felt cheatit, [26] as his suicide meant thay wad niver hae the satisfaction o Shipman's confession, an answers as tae why he committit his creemes.

The Home Secretar David Blunkett notit that celebration wis temptin, sayin: "You wake up and you receive a call telling you Shipman has topped himself and you think, is it too early to open a bottle?

And then you discover that everybody's very upset that he's done it. Despite The Sun' s celebration o Shipman's suicide, his daith dividit naitional newspapers, wi the Daily Mirror brandin him a "cauld coward" an condemnin Her Majesty's Prison Service for allouin his suicide tae happen.

The Independent , on the ither haund, cried for the inquiry intae Shipman's suicide tae leuk mair widely at the state o Breetain's prisons as well as the welfare of inmates.

Shipman's motive for suicide wis niver establisht, awtho he haed reportedly tauld his probation officer that he wis considerin suicide sae that his widae coud receive a National Health Service NHS pension an lump sum, even tho he haed been strippit o his awn pension.

Efter refusin, he became emotional an close tae tears when privileges - includin the opportunity tae telephone his wife - wur remuivit. Accordin tae Shipman's ex-cellmate Tony Fleming, Primrose haed recently written a letter tae her husband, exhortin him tae "tell me everything, no matter what".

The Trial. Attempts by his defence council to have Shipman tried in three separate phases, i. The prosecution asserted that Shipman had killed the fifteen patients because he enjoyed exercising control over life and death, and dismissed any claims that he had been acting compassionately, as none of his victims were suffering a terminal illness.

Next up, the government pathologist led the court through the gruesome post mortem findings, where morphine toxicity was the cause of death in most instances.

Thereafter, fingerprint analysis of the forged will showed that Kathleen Grundy had never handled the will, and her signature was dismissed by a handwriting expert as a crude forgery.

A police computer analyst then testified how Shipman had altered his computer records to create symptoms that his dead patients never had, in most cases within hours of their deaths.

A lack of compassion, disregard for the wishes of attending relatives, and reluctance to attempt to revive patients were bad enough, but another fraud also came to light: he would pretend to call the emergency services in the presence of relatives, then cancel the call out when the patient was discovered to be dead.

Telephone records showed that no actual calls were made. Despite their attempts, his arrogance and constantly changing stories, when caught out in obvious lies, did nothing to endear him to the jury.

Following a meticulous summation by the judge, and a caution to the jury that no one had actually witnessed Shipman kill any of his patients, the jury were sufficiently convinced by the testimony and evidence presented, and unanimously found Shipman guilty on all charges: 15 counts of murder and one of forgery, on the afternoon of 31st January Shipman was incarcerated at Durham Prison.

The Aftermath. The fact that a doctor had killed 15 patients sent a shudder through the medical community, but this was to prove insignificant in light of further investigations that delved more deeply into his patient case list history.

A clinical audit conducted by Professor Richard Baker, of the University of Leicester, examined the number and pattern of deaths in Harold Shipman's practice and compared them with those of other practitioners.

It found that rates of death amongst his elderly patients were significantly higher, clustered at certain times of day and that Shipman was in attendance in a disproportionately high number of cases.

The audit goes on to estimate that he may have been responsible for the deaths of at least patients over a year period.

He may in fact have taken his first victim within months of obtaining his licence to practice medicine, year-old Margaret Thompson, who died in March whilst recovering from a stroke, but deaths prior to were never officially proven.

Whatever the exact number, the sheer scale of his murderous activities meant that Shipman was catapulted from British patient killer to the most prolific known serial killer in the world.

He remained at Durham Prison throughout these investigations, maintaining his innocence, and was staunchly defended by his wife Primrose and family.

He was moved to Wakefield Prison in June , which made visits from his family easier. On 13th January , Shipman was discovered at 6 a.

There remains some mystery about the whereabouts of his remains, with some claiming that his body is still in a Sheffield Morgue, while others believe that his family have custody of his body, believing that he may have been murdered in his cell, and wishing to delay his interment pending further tests.

His patients - mainly elderly women - were living alone and vulnerable. They adored their doctor, Harold "Fred" Shipman.

Even when their contemporaries began dying in unusually high numbers, patients remained loyal to the murderous M.

For as long as he spared them, his victims loved their doctor — to death. In the dead of a black August night, relentless rains and driving winds formed the perfect backdrop for an exhumation.

But this was no psychological thriller — the Manchester police were observing a real-life drama.

Experts were raising the mud-streaked coffin of wealthy Kathleen Grundy. Interred just 5 weeks earlier in the Hyde cemetery, the year-old ex-mayoress held, in death, the key to solving nearly murders.

This would give killer Dr. Harold Shipman the dubious distinction of being the greatest serial murderer the world has ever known.

It puts him well ahead of modern history's most prolific serial killer to date — Pedro "monster of the Andes" Lopez.

Convicted of 57 murders in , Lopez allegedly killed young girls in Colombia. In spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, he continues to maintain his innocence.

How could this prolific serial killer go undetected for so long? And what made him the monster he became? The answers lie in a story that began in earnest over fifty years ago — in a government-owned red brick terrace house in the north of England.

Born into a working class family on June 14, , Harold Frederick Shipman, called Fred or Freddy, knew a childhood far from normal.

He maintained a distance between himself and his contemporaries — mainly due to the influence of his mother, Vera.

This distance was to manifest itself in later years. One neighbor notes, "Vera was friendly enough, but she really did see her family as superior to the rest of us.

Not only that, you could tell Harold Freddy was her favorite — the one she saw as the most promising of her three children.

Vera decided who Harold could play with, and when. She wanted to distinguish him from the other boys — he was the one who always wore a tie when the others were allowed more casual dress.

His sister Pauline was seven years older, his brother Clive, four years his junior. But in his mother's eyes, Harold was the one she held the most hope for.

As a student, Shipman was comparatively bright in his early school years, but rather mediocre when he reached upper school level.

Nonetheless, he was a plodder determined to succeed, even when it meant re-sitting his entrance examinations for medical school. Strangely, he had every opportunity to be part of the group — he was an accomplished athlete on the football field and the running track.

In spite of this, his belief in his superiority appears to have precluded forming meaningful friendships with his contemporaries.

And there was something else that isolated him from the group. His beloved mother had terminal lung cancer. As she wasted away, Harold willingly played a major supportive role.

Much has been made of the way young Harold Shipman dealt with his mother's final months — justifiably so. Because his behavior then closely paralleled that of Shipman the serial killer.

Every day after classes, he would hurry home, make Vera a cup of tea and chat with her — probably about his day at school.

She counted the minutes as she waited, and found great solace in his company. For his part, this is likely where Shipman learned the endearing bedside manner he would adopt later in his practice as a family physician.

Toward the end, Vera experienced severe pain. But, because pumps to self-administer painkillers did not exist at that time, Vera's sole relief from the agony of cancer came with the family physician.

No doubt young Harold watched in fascination as his mother's distress miraculously subsided whenever the family doctor injected her with morphine.

As the disease progressed, the already trim Ms. Shipman grew thinner and frailer until, on June 21st , the cancer claimed her life.

Vera's death left her son with a tremendous sense of loss. After all, his mother was the one who made him feel special, above the rest.

Significantly, her passing left him with an indelible image — the patient with a cup of tea nearby, finding sweet relief in morphine.

Etched upon the year-old's mind, it was a scene he would re-create hundreds of times in the future.

And when it happened, he would be a doctor — one with no regard for human life or feeling. Two years after his mother died, Harold Shipman was finally admitted to Leeds University medical school.

Getting in had been a struggle. In spite of his self-proclaimed superiority, he'd had to re-write the exams he'd flunked first time around.

Nonetheless, his grades were adequate enough for him to collect a degree and serve his mandatory hospital internship.

It is surprising to learn that so many of his teachers and fellow students can barely remember Shipman.

Some who do remember claim that he looked down on them and seemed bemused by the way most young men behaved. If someone told a joke he would smile patiently, but Fred never wanted to join in.

It seems funny, because I later heard he'd been a good athlete, so you'd have thought he'd be more of a team player.

Most of his contemporaries — especially from his earlier years — simply remember him as a loner. They also remember the one place where his personality changed — the football field.

Here, his aggression was unleashed, his dedication to win intense. Even so, he was more sociable in medical school than his mother had allowed him to be while living at home.

A former teacher said, "I don't think he ever had a girlfriend; in fact he took his older sister to school dances.

They made a strange couple. But then, he was a bit strange — a pretentious lad. But Shipman finally found companionship in a girl and married before most of his contemporaries did.

At nineteen, he met Primrose — 3 years his junior. Her background was similar to Fred's. Her mother restricted her friendships, and controlled her activities.

No poster girl, Primrose was delighted to have finally found a boyfriend. Shipman married her when she was 17 — and 5 months pregnant. By he was a father of two and had joined a medical practice in the Yorkshire town of Todmorden.

In this North England setting, Fred seemed to undergo a metamorphosis; he became an outgoing, respected member of the community — in the eyes of his fellow medics and patients.

But the staff in the medical offices where he worked saw a different side of the young practitioner. He was often unnecessarily rude and made some of them feel "stupid" — a word he frequently used to describe anyone he didn't like.

He was confrontational and combative with many people, to the point where he belittled and embarrassed them. He also had a way of getting things done his way — even with the more experienced doctors in the practice.

Hard working, and enthusiastic, Shipman fitted well into the social matrix. His senior partners saw him as a Godsend.

One, Dr. Michael Grieve, appreciated Fred's contribution in providing up-to-date information, as he was so recently out of medical school.

But his career in Todmorden came to a sudden halt when he began having blackouts. His partners were devastated when he gave them the reason.

He suffered, he said, with epilepsy. He used this inaccurate diagnosis as a cover-up. The truth soon surfaced, when practice receptionist Marjorie Walker stumbled upon some disturbing entries in a druggist's controlled narcotics ledger.

The records showed how Shipman had been prescribing large and frequent amounts of pethidine in the names of several patients.

Moreover, he'd written numerous prescriptions for the drug on behalf of the practice. Although this was not unusual drugs are kept on hand for emergencies and immediate treatments , the prescribed amounts were excessive.

Pethidine — a morphine-like analgesic — was initially thought to have no addictive properties.

Now, some sixty years after scientists first synthesized it, pethidine's non-addictive reputation is still hotly debated.

Following the discovery of Shipman's over-prescribing, a covert investigation by the practice — including Dr.

John Dacre — followed. To his alarm, he discovered many patients on the prescription list had neither required nor received the drug.

Dacre challenged Fred in a staff meeting, as one of his partners, Dr. Michael Grieve recalls:. Shipman's way of dealing with the problem was to provide an insight into his true personality.

Realizing his career was on the line, he first begged for a second chance. When this was denied, he became enraged and stormed out, hurled a medical bag to the ground and threatened to resign.

The partners were dumbfounded by this violent — and seemingly uncharacteristic — behavior. Shortly afterwards, his wife Primrose stormed into the room where his peers were discussing the best way to dismiss him.

Rudely, she informed the people at the meeting that her husband would never resign, proclaiming, "You'll have to force him out!

She was right. Ultimately he was forced out of the practice and into a drug re-hab center in Two years later, his many convictions for drug offences, prescription fraud and forgery cost him a surprisingly low fine — just over pounds sterling.

Shipman's conviction for forgery is worth noting. First, because his skill in this area was nothing less than pathetic; second, he failed to learn that his ineptitude in this area was readily exposed.

Yet in spite of this early warning, some 22 years later he actually believed he could get away with faking signatures on a patently counterfeit will — that of his last victim, Katherine Grundy.

This lack of judgment — some say arrogance — set in motion the mechanism for his downfall. As for the pethidine charges, the question remains: Did he really self-inject the drugs as he claimed or had he already begun using them to kill unsuspecting patients?

This is currently under review. Today, it is unlikely Harold Shipman would be allowed to handle drugs unsupervised, given his previous track record.

Nonetheless, within two years, he was back in business as a general practitioner. How readily he was accepted demonstrates his absolute self-confidence — and his ability to convince his peers of his sincerity.

Jeffery Moysey of the Center explained "His approach was that I have had this problem, this conviction for abuse of pethidine. I have undergone treatment.

I am now clean. All I can ask you to do is to trust me on that issue and to watch me. Again, he played the role of a dedicated, hardworking and community-minded doctor.

He gained his patients' absolute trust and earned his colleagues' respect. Some of those who worked under him have told of his sarcastic and abusive nature, but he was skilled at masking his patronizing attitude in front of those he chose to impress.

As for any signs of addiction, there were no blackouts as before, and no indication of drug abuse.

Because of the nature of the Shipman case, it may never be possible to document every murder he committed.

A clinical audit commissioned by the Department of Health estimates his responsibility for the deaths of at least patients over a year period.

This audit, by Professor Richard Baker of the University of Leicester, examined the number and pattern of deaths in Harold Shipman's practice.

It then compared them with those of other practitioners. Significant differences appeared, notably that the rates of death in elderly patients were disproportionately higher.

Other variations appeared; deaths were often clustered at certain times of the day, patients' records and previous symptoms mismatched, and Shipman was usually in attendance.

Professor Liam Donaldson, Chief Medical Officer for the Department of Health, wrote that these factors "must now be investigated by the proper legal authorities.

Detective Chief Superintendent Bernard Postles, who headed the original investigations, said of the report 'many of its conclusions accord with our own findings to date.

Even so, the final numbers are anyone's guess — Coroner John Pollard once speculated "we might be looking at But whatever the final count, there is no immediate plan to try the killer on future findings — nor would it serve much purpose because he's already serving 15 concurrent life sentences.

Instead, other cases are being investigated as they come to light, with coroners' verdicts of unlawful killing continuing to mount.

As they do, the question most asked is this: Why wasn't he stopped sooner? In this macabre and unfinished story, Shipman's former patients are grateful indeed he was finally stopped.

The feeling "I could have been next" will always haunt them. And there is little doubt that some owe their lives to a determined and intelligent woman named Angela Woodruff.

Her dogged determination to solve a mystery helped ensure that, on Monday, January 31, , the jury at Preston Crown Court found Shipman guilty of murdering 15 of his patients and forging the will of Angela's beloved mother, Katherine Grundy.

But Ms. Woodruff was not the first to realize something was dangerously wrong where Dr. Shipman was involved.

Local undertaker Alan Massey began noticing a strange pattern: not only did Shipman's patients seem to be dying at an unusually high rate; their dead bodies had a similarity when he called to collect them.

Shipman's always seem to be the same, or very similar. There was never anything in the house that I saw that indicated the person had been ill.

It just seems the person, where they were, had died. There was something that didn't quite fit. Worried enough to voice his unease, Massey decided to confront Shipman, and paid the doctor a visit.

Massey recalls, "I asked him if there was any cause for concern and he just said 'no there isn't". He showed me his certificate book that he issues death certificates in, the cause of death in, and his remarks were 'nothing to worry about, you've nothing to worry about and anybody who wants to inspect his book can do.

Reassured by Shipman's ease at being questioned, the undertaker took no further action. But his daughter, Debbie Brambroffe — also a funeral director — was not so readily appeased.

She found an ally in Dr. Susan Booth. From a neighboring practice, Dr. Booth had gone to the funeral directors to examine a body.

British law requires a doctor from an unrelated practice to countersign cremation forms issued by the original doctor. They are paid a fee for this service which some medics cynically call "cash for ash.

Booth she had misgivings. Booth explained, "She was concerned about the number of deaths of Dr.

Shipman's patients that they'd attended recently. She was also puzzled by the way in which the patients were found.

They were mostly female, living on their own, found dead sitting in a chair fully dressed, not in their nightclothes lying ill in bed.

Booth spoke to her colleagues. One of them, Dr. Linda Reynolds contacted coroner John Pollard. He in turn alerted the police. In a virtually covert operation, Shipman's records were examined and given a clean bill of health because the causes of death and treatments matched perfectly.

What the police did not discover was that Shipman had re-written patient records after he killed. The quality of that investigation has been questioned because the police failed to check for a previous criminal record.

Nor did they make inquiries with the General Medical Council. Had they done so, Shipman's past record of drug abuse and forgery might well have led to a more thorough approach.

But more intense scrutiny was about to blow the Shipman case wide open. Kathleen Grundy's sudden death on June 24th came as a terrible shock to all who knew her.

A singularly active year-old, she was well known to the people of Hyde. A wealthy ex-mayor, she had energy to burn and was a tireless worker for local charities until the day of her death.

Her absence was noted when she failed to show at the Age Concern club. There, she helped serve meals to elderly pensioners. Because the wealthy widow was noted for her punctuality and reliability, her friends suspected something was wrong.

When they went to her home to check up on her, they found her lying on a sofa. She was fully dressed, and dead. He had visited the house a few hours earlier, and was the last person to see her alive.

He claimed the purpose of his visit had been to take blood samples for studies on aging. Shipman pronounced her dead and the news was conveyed to her daughter, Angela Woodruff.

The doctor told the daughter a post mortem was unnecessary because he had seen her shortly before her death.

Following her mother's burial Ms. Woodruff returned to her home, where she received a troubling phone call from solicitors.

They claimed to have a copy of Ms. Grundy's will. A solicitor herself, Angela's own firm had always handled her mother's affairs - her firm held the original document lodged in The moment she saw the badly typed, poorly worded paper, Angela Woodruff knew it was a fake.

It left , pounds to Dr. The signature looked strange, it looked too big. The concept of Mum signing a document leaving everything to her doctor was unbelievable.

Initially, she wondered if Shipman was being framed. But after interviewing witnesses to the "will," she reluctantly concluded the doctor had murdered her mother for profit.

It was then she went to her local police. Her investigation results ultimately reached Detective Superintendent Bernard Postles. His own investigation convinced him Angela Woodruff's conclusions were accurate.

Of the forged will itself, Postles was to later say, "You only have to look at it once and you start thinking it's like something off a John Bull printing press.

You don't have to have twenty years as a detective to know it's a fake. Maybe he thought he was being clever — an old lady, nobody around her: Look at it; it's a bit tacky.

But everyone knew she was as sharp as a tack. Maybe it was his arrogance Now Det. Supt Postles had the oldest motive in the world — greed — to justify his future actions.

To get solid proof of Kathleen Grundy's murder, a post mortem was required which, in turn, required an exhumation order from the coroner.

This is a rare occurrence for any British police force, one the Greater Manchester Police had not experienced. We asked the National Crime Squad for advice.

Postles explained. By the time the trial had begun, his team would be uncomfortably familiar with the process. Of the fifteen killed, nine were buried and six cremated.

Katherine Grundy's was the first grave opened. Her body was the first of the ongoing post mortems. Her tissue and hair samples were sent to different labs for analysis, and the wait for results began.

At the same time, police raided the doctor's home and offices. It was a low-key exercise, but timed so Shipman had no chance of learning a body had been exhumed for a post mortem — Police had to be certain no evidence could be destroyed or concealed before their search.

When the police arrived, Shipman registered no surprise. Rather, his approach was one of arrogance and contempt as the search warrant was read out.

One item crucial to police investigations was the typewriter used to type the bogus will. Shipman produced an old Brother manual portable, telling an improbable tale of how Ms.

Grundy sometimes borrowed it. This unbelievable story was to work against Shipman — especially when forensic scientists confirmed it was the machine used to type the counterfeit will and other fraudulent documents.

Searching his house yielded medical records, some mysterious jewelry and a surprise. The Shipman home was littered with filthy clothes, old newspapers and, for a doctor's home, it was nothing short of unsanitary.

When toxicologist Julie Evans filed her report on the cause of Ms. Grundy's death, Det. Postles was astounded. The morphine level in the dead woman's body was the cause of death.

Not only that, her death would have occurred within three hours of having received the fatal overdose.

Postles later said Shipman's use of the drug was a serious miscalculation. A doctor would surely have known morphine is one of the few poisons that can remain in body tissue for centuries.

Postles observed, "I was surprised I anticipated that I would have had difficulty if he gave them something in way of poison lost in background substance.

Shipman would claim later that the stylish and conservative old lady was a junkie. Even today psychologists speculate on the possibility that he wanted to be caught.

Otherwise, why would he hand them the typewriter and use a drug so easily traced back to him?

Others believe he saw himself as invincible, believing that, as a doctor, his word would never be questioned. The detective realized the case went far beyond one death, and the scope of the investigation was broadened immediately.

Just which deaths to investigate became the priority. To decide, a scale was devised, based on patterns. Those who had not been cremated and had died following a Shipman "house call" took precedence.

Other issues were factored in, but obviously only uncremated bodies could yield tissue samples for examination.

Slightly different criteria were applied to the next group for police investigation. All cremated, they were investigated, mainly, on the basis of known pre-existing conditions, recorded causes of death, and Shipman's presence before they died.

Whenever he could, the doctor had urged families to cremate their dead and had also stressed no further investigation was necessary.

It may seem strange now that no relatives found this peculiar, but people typically trust their doctors, especially in times of great stress.

After all, the causes of deaths Shipman presented were rational, even though bereaved families were often surprised to learn of conditions their loved ones had never mentioned.

Even if they had questioned the doctor, he had the computerized medical notes to prove patients had seen him for the very symptoms he cited as leading to causes of death.

Police would later know he'd altered computer records to make everything match. Callously, Shipman made most of these changes within hours of his patients' deaths.

Often, immediately after killing, he would hurry to his office and adjust his records. In the case of year-old Kathleen Grundy, he reinforced his later statement that she was a morphine junkie by inventing and backdating several entries.

His sheer audacity in suggesting this highly respected woman had been scoring hits from drug dealers was overwhelmingly stupid.

The moment he made the statement, his credibility crumbled. When Shipman first encountered the computer, he was technophobic.

But once he reluctantly agreed to embrace the then new technology, he declared himself a computer expert. This was consistent with his need to assert his superiority.

But what the self-proclaimed computer wiz didn't know was that his hard drive recorded — to the second — every phony alteration he made to a patient's records.

A taped interview with the Greater Manchester Police demonstrates this lack of knowledge:. Police Officer: I'll just remind you of the date of this lady's death — 11th May ' After 3 o'clock that afternoon, you have endorsed the computer with the date of 1st October '97 which is 10 months prior, 'chest pains'.

Shipman: I have no recollection of me putting that on the machine. Officer: You attended the house at 3 o'clock.

That's when you murdered this lady. You went back to the surgery and immediately started altering this lady's medical records. You tell me why you needed to do that.

In another recorded interview, Detective Constable Marie Snitynski also demonstrated how Shipman's computer trapped him.

Following her advising the doctor he had killed a patient year-old Winnifred Mellor with morphine overdose, then altered records to show a history of angina and chest pains, the police officer continued her interview:.

Police Officer: The levels were such that this woman actually died from toxicity of morphine, not as you wrongly diagnosed.

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