Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'durch' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Worttrennung: durch. Aussprache: IPA: [dʊʁç]: Hörbeispiele: Lautsprecherbild durch. Übersetzung Deutsch-Englisch für durch im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. jonkoping-filmfestival.se | Übersetzungen für 'durch' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. durch (Deutsch). Wortart: Präposition. Silbentrennung: durch. Aussprache/Betonung: IPA: [dʊʁç]. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) in etwas hinein und auf der.
Gefundene Synonyme: anhand, durch, mit, mit Hilfe (von), mithilfe, mittels, per, qua, unter Einsatz von, unter Zuhilfenahme von, vermittels, vermittelst, via, über. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "durch" – Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Englisch-Übersetzungen. jonkoping-filmfestival.se | Übersetzungen für 'durch' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen.
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More complex inflection is still found in certain lexicalized expressions like de heer de s hui zes literally, "the man of the house" , etc.
These are usually remnants of cases in this instance, the genitive case which is still used in German, cf. Der Herr des Hauses and other inflections no longer in general use today.
In such lexicalized expressions remnants of strong and weak nouns can be found too, e. Also in this case, German retains this feature. Dutch shares much of its word order with German.
Dutch exhibits subject—object—verb word order, but in main clauses the conjugated verb is moved into the second position in what is known as verb second or V2 word order.
This makes Dutch word order almost identical to that of German, but often different from English, which has subject—verb—object word order and has since lost the V2 word order that existed in Old English.
An example sentence used in some Dutch language courses and textbooks is " Ik kan mijn pen niet vinden omdat het veel te donker is ", which translates into English word for word as " I can my pen not find because it far too dark is ", but in standard English word order would be written " I cannot find my pen because it is far too dark ".
If the sentence is split into a main and subclause and the verbs highlighted, the logic behind the word order can be seen.
Verbs are placed in the final position, but the conjugated verb, in this case "kan" can , is made the second element of the clause.
In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position:.
In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause:. In Dutch, the diminutive is used extensively.
The nuances of meaning expressed by the diminutive are a distinctive aspect of Dutch, and can be difficult for non-native speakers to master.
It is very productive  : 61 and formed by adding one of the suffixes to the noun in question, depending on the latter's phonological ending:.
The diminutive suffixes -ke from which -tje has derived by palatalization , -eke , -ske , -ie only for words ending -ch, -k, -p, or -s , -kie instead of -kje , and -pie instead of -pje are used in southern dialects, and the forms ending on -ie as well in northern urban dialects.
The noun joch young boy has, exceptionally, only the diminutive form jochie, also in standard Dutch. The former take a diminutive ending and thus function as nouns, the latter remain adverbs and always have the diminutive with the -s appended, e.
A few nouns exist solely in a diminutive form, e. Some diminutive forms only exist in the plural, e. When used to refer to time, the Dutch diminutive form can indicate whether the person in question found it pleasant or not: een uur tje kletsen chatting for a "little" hour.
The diminutive can, however, also be used pejoratively: Hij was weer eens het "mannetje". He acted as if he was the "little" man.
There are two series of personal pronouns, subject and objects pronouns. The forms on the right-hand sides within each column are the unemphatic forms; those not normally written are given in brackets.
Only ons and u do not have an unemphatic form. The distinction between emphatic and unemphatic pronouns is very important in Dutch.
For example, "I gave to myself the money" is reflexive but "I myself gave the money to someone else " is emphatic. Like English, Dutch has generalised the dative over the accusative case for all pronouns, e.
NL 'me', 'je', EN 'me', 'you', vs. There is one exception: the standard language prescribes that in the third person plural, hen is to be used for the direct object, and hun for the indirect object.
This distinction was artificially introduced in the 17th century by grammarians, and is largely ignored in spoken language and not well understood by Dutch speakers.
Consequently, the third person plural forms hun and hen are interchangeable in normal usage, with hun being more common.
The shared unstressed form ze is also often used as both direct and indirect objects and is a useful avoidance strategy when people are unsure which form to use.
Dutch shares also with English the presence of h- pronouns, e. DE er , ihn , ihr , ihnen. Like German, Dutch allows arbitrarily long compounds, but the longer they get, the less frequent they tend to be.
An even longer word cropping up in official documents is ziektekostenverzekeringsmaatschappij health insurance company though the shorter zorgverzekeraar health insurer is more common.
Notwithstanding official spelling rules, some Dutch-speaking people, like some Scandinavians and German speakers, nowadays tend to write the parts of a compound separately, a practice sometimes dubbed de Engelse ziekte the English disease.
Latin , which was spoken in the southern Low Countries for centuries, and subsequently played a major role as the language of science and religion, follows with 6.
High German and Low German were influential until the midth century and account for 2. Dutch has borrowed words from English since the middle of the 19th century, as a consequence of the increasing power and influence of Britain and the United States.
The share of English loanwords is about 1. Conversely, Dutch contributed many loanwords to English, accounting for 1. The main Dutch dictionary is the Van Dale groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal , which contains some , headwords.
This scholarly endeavor took years to complete and contains all recorded Dutch words from the Early Middle Ages onward.
Dutch is written using the Latin script. Dutch uses one additional character beyond the standard alphabet, the digraph IJ.
It has a relatively high proportion of doubled letters, both vowels and consonants, due to the formation of compound words and also to the spelling devices for distinguishing the many vowel sounds in the Dutch language.
An example of five consecutive doubled letters is the word voorraaddoos food storage container. The diaeresis Dutch: trema is used to mark vowels that are pronounced separately when involving a pre- or suffix, and a hyphen is used when the problem occurs in compound words.
Generally, other diacritical marks occur only in loanwords. Since the s, the Dutch Language Union has been given the mandate to review and make recommendations on the official spelling of Dutch.
Spelling reforms undertaken by the union occurred in and In the Netherlands, the official spelling is currently given legal basis by the Spelling Act of 15 September In addition, the law requires that this spelling be followed "at the governmental bodies, at educational institutions funded from the public purse, as well as at the exams for which legal requirements have been established".
In other cases, it is recommended, but it is not mandatory to follow the official spelling. The Decree on the Spelling Regulations of contains the annexed spelling rules decided by the Committee of Ministers on 25 April The Woordenlijst Nederlandse taal , more commonly known as "het groene boekje" i.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. West Germanic language. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
For other uses, see Dutch disambiguation. Dutch Flemings Indo Surinamese. Language family. Old Dutch Middle Dutch.
Writing system. Latin Dutch alphabet Dutch Braille. Signed forms. Dependent entities. Dutch-speaking world included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans.
Main article: Terminology of the Low Countries. Main article: History of the Dutch language. North Germanic. North Sea Germanic , or Ingvaeonic.
Weser-Rhine Germanic , or Istvaeonic. Elbe Germanic , or Irminonic. East Germanic. Main article: Frankish language. Main article: Old Dutch.
Main article: Middle Dutch. Main article: Dutch dialects. West Flemish. West Flemish and Zeeuws Flemish 2. South Hollandic 4.
Westhoeks 5. Waterlands and Volendams 6. Zaans 7. Kennemerlands 8. West Frisian 9. Bildts , Midslands , Stadsfries and Amelands.
Dutch Low Saxon. Kollumerlands Gronings and North Drents Stellingwerfs Middle Drents South Drents Twents Twents-Graafschaps Sallands , Achterhooks and Urks Eastern Hollandic.
South Guelderish North Brabantian and North Limburgs Brabantian East Flemish. Province Flevoland. No dialect a majority, because of its short existence.
Main article: Dutch Low Saxon. Main article: Limburgish. See also: Dutch diaspora and Geographical distribution of Dutch speakers.
Belgium Suriname 1. Caribbean 0. Main article: Afrikaans. See also: Differences between Afrikaans and Dutch. Main article: Dutch phonology.
See also: IJ digraph. Main article: Dutch grammar. See also: DT-Manie. There are about 80, Dutch speakers in France; see Simpson , p. In French Flanders, only a remnant of 20, Flemish-speakers remain; see Berdichevsky , p.
French Flemish is spoken in the north-west of France by an estimated population of 20, daily speakers and 40, occasional speakers; see European Commission A dialect continuum exists between Dutch and German through the South Guelderish and Limburgish dialects.
In , , Indonesians spoke Dutch, and Dutch exerted a major influence on Indonesian; see Sneddon , p. In , about 0.
At the beginning of World War II, about one million Asians had an active command of Dutch, while an additional half million had a passive knowledge; see Jones , p.
Many older Indonesians speak Dutch as a second language; see Thomson , p. Some of the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia speak Dutch amongst each other; see Tan , pp.
Dutch is spoken by "smaller groups of speakers" in Indonesia; see Bussmann , p. Some younger Indonesians learn Dutch as a foreign language because their parents and grandparents may speak it and because in some circles, Dutch is regarded as the language of the elite; see Vos , p.
At present, only educated people of the oldest generation, in addition to specialists who require knowledge of the language, can speak Dutch fluently; see Ammon , p.
Afrikaans is rooted in 17th century dialects of Dutch; see Holm , p. Afrikaans is variously described as a creole, a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see Sebba , p.
It has by far the largest geographical distribution; see Alant , p. Afrikaans is a lingua franca of Namibia; see Deumert , p.
While the number of total speakers of Afrikaans is unknown, estimates range between 15 and 23 million. Afrikaans has Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see Machan , p.
About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see Alant , p. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see Stell —11 , p.
Dutch and Afrikaans share mutual intelligibility; see Gooskens , p. For written mutual intelligibility; see Sebba , p.
It is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than the other way around; see Gooskens , p.
Dutch and English are closely related; see Ingram , p. Dutch and English are very closely related languages; see Fitzpatrick , p.
English is most closely related to Dutch; see Lightfoot , p. Dutch has been positioned to be between English and German; see Putnam , p.
Typologically, Dutch takes a midway position between English and German, with a similar word order to that of German, grammatical gender, and a largely Germanic vocabulary.
In contrast to German, case markings have become vestigial in English and Dutch; see Hogg , p. The umlaut in Dutch and English matured to a much lesser extent than in German; see Simpson , p.
Grammatical gender has little grammatical consequences in Dutch; see Bussmann , p. Retrieved February 3, Languages at Leicester.
University of Leicester. Glottolog 3. Retrieved December 27, Retrieved November 4, Retrieved June 11, Journal of multilingual and multicultural development.
Multilingual Matters. Leiden: Brill. In König, Ekkehard; van der Auwera, Johan eds. The Germanic Languages. London: Routledge.
Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek. DBNL in Dutch. Retrieved April 25, Verdam, Middelnederlandsch handwoordenboek The Hague reprinted : "Nederlant, znw.
I Laag of aan zee gelegen land. Retrieved August 12, See Online etymological dictionary. Entry: Nether. Retrieved October 24, This long-standing, well-known article on the languages can be found in almost any edition of Britannica.
In Bernard Comrie ed. The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. Old English and Its Closest Relatives. Stanford University Press.
Matheson Santa Barbara, Calif. Discovering the Dutch: on culture and society of the Netherlands. Amsterdam University Press.
From the Original languages into our Dutch language faithfully translated. Conflict and compromise in multilingual societies.
Linguistics and the Study of Comics 1st ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Keith Brown ed.
Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 2 ed. Statistics Belgium in Dutch. Archived from the original on June 4, Phonetics for Dummies.
Hoboken, N. Statistics Netherlands. Retrieved May 6, European Union. June World Atlas. Retrieved December 6, Central Bureau of Statistics Aruba.
September 29, Retrieved December 7, Retrieved October 20, Geschiedenis van het Nederlands. Utrecht: Het Spectrum. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Cambridge University Press.
Retrieved June 29, Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Statistics New Zealand.
Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on August 28, The World Factbook.
Retrieved August 19, January 26, April 10, Statistics Canada. July 4, The Daily". December 2, Ottawa, , pp. Standaard-Afrikaans PDF.
Pers van die Universiteit van die Witwatersrand. Retrieved September 17, Die verhaalskat van Ons Klyntji — in Afrikaans.
Johannesburg: Voortrekkerpers. Inaugural Lecture. University of the Free State. Archived from the original PDF on August 16, Literary and Linguistic Computing.
August 14, Archived from the original on September 7, Retrieved September 21, Statistics South Africa. Archived from the original PDF on November 30, Government of the Republic of Namibia.
Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved January 2, Basisbegrippen Fonetiek en Fonologie. Leuven: Acco. Zeer Goed Dutch. January 20, Dutch: A Comprehensive Grammar.
Genootschap Onze Taal - Taaladviesdienst. Retrieved May 23, Walter de Gruyter. Abraham, Werner , Kulikov, L. Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society.
A comparison of Afrikaans and Dutch. The traditional arts and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of traditional music , dances , architectural styles and clothing, some of which are globally recognizable.
The dominant religion of the Dutch was Christianity both Catholic and Protestant , although in modern times the majority are no longer religious.
Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism , agnosticism , atheism or individual spirituality.
As with all ethnic groups, the ethnogenesis of the Dutch and their predecessors has been a lengthy and complex process.
Though the majority of the defining characteristics such as language, religion, architecture or cuisine of the Dutch ethnic group have accumulated over the ages, it is difficult if not impossible to clearly pinpoint the exact emergence of the Dutch people; the interpretation of which is often highly personal.
The text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group; for Dutch national history , please see the history-articles of the Netherlands.
For Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. In the first centuries CE, the Germanic tribes formed tribal societies with no apparent form of autocracy chiefs only being elected in times of war , beliefs based Germanic paganism and speaking a dialect still closely resembling Common Germanic.
Following the end of the migration period in the West around , with large federations such as the Franks , Vandals , Alamanni and Saxons settling the decaying Roman Empire , a series of monumental changes took place within these Germanic societies.
Among the most important of these are their conversion from Germanic paganism to Christianity , the emergence of a new political system, centered on kings, and a continuing process of emerging mutual unintelligibility of their various dialects.
The general situation described above is applicable to most if not all modern European ethnic groups with origins among the Germanic tribes , such as the Frisians, Germans, English and the North-Germanic Scandinavian peoples.
In the Low Countries, this phase began when the Franks , themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes many of them, such as the Batavi , Chauci , Chamavi and Chattuarii , were already living in the Low Countries prior to the forming of the Frankish confederation , began to incur the northwestern provinces of the Roman Empire.
Eventually, in , the Salian Franks , one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance  settled the area's Southern lands as foederati ; Roman allies in charge of border defense.
Linguistically Old Frankish or Low Franconian gradually evolved into Old Dutch ,   which was first attested in the 6th century,  whereas religiously the Franks beginning with the upper class converted to Christianity from around to On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism  and founded a number of kingdoms, eventually culminating in the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne.
However, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or even early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia , was not dominated by Franks.
Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part i.
The current Dutch-French language border has with the exception of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais in France and Brussels and the surrounding municipalities in Belgium remained virtually identical ever since, and could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks.
The medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the already relatively loose local form of feudalism.
As they became increasingly powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility.
While the cities were of great political importance, they also formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture.
Trade flourished, population numbers increased dramatically, and advanced education was no longer limited to the clergy; Dutch epic literature such as Elegast , the Roelantslied and Van den vos Reynaerde were widely enjoyed.
The various city guilds as well as the necessity of water boards in charge of dikes, canals, etc. It is also around this time, that ethnonyms such as Diets and Nederlands emerge.
In the second half of the 14th century, the dukes of Burgundy gained a foothold in the Low Countries through the marriage in of Philip the Bold of Burgundy to the heiress of the Count of Flanders.
This was followed by a series of marriages, wars, and inheritances among the other Dutch fiefs and around the most important fiefs were under Burgundian rule, while complete control was achieved after the end of the Guelders Wars in , thereby unifying the fiefs of the Low Countries under one ruler.
This process marked a new episode in the development of the Dutch ethnic group, as now political unity started to emerge, consolidating the strengthened cultural and linguistic unity.
Despite their linguistic and cultural unity, and in the case of Flanders , Brabant and Holland economic similarities, there was still little sense of political unity among the Dutch people.
However, the centralist policies of Burgundy in the 14th and 15th centuries, at first violently opposed by the cities of the Low Countries, had a profound impact and changed this.
During Charles the Bold 's many wars, which were a major economic burden for the Burgundian Netherlands, tensions slowly increased.
In , the year of Charles' sudden death at Nancy , the Low Countries rebelled against their new liege, Mary of Burgundy , and presented her with a set of demands.
The subsequently issued Great Privilege met many of these demands, which included that Dutch, not French, should be the administrative language in the Dutch-speaking provinces and that the States-General had the right to hold meetings without the monarch's permission or presence.
The overall tenure of the document which was declared void by Mary's son and successor, Philip IV aimed for more autonomy for the counties and duchies, but nevertheless all the fiefs presented their demands together, rather than separately.
This is evidence that by this time a sense of common interest was emerging among the provinces of the Netherlands. The document itself clearly distinguishes between the Dutch speaking and French speaking parts of the Seventeen Provinces.
Further centralized policies of the Habsburgs like their Burgundian predecessors again met with resistance, but, peaking with the formation of the collateral councils of and the Pragmatic Sanction of , were still implemented.
The rule of Philip II of Spain sought even further centralist reforms, which, accompanied by religious dictates and excessive taxation, resulted in the Dutch Revolt.
The Dutch provinces, though fighting alone now, for the first time in their history found themselves fighting a common enemy. This, together with the growing number of Dutch intelligentsia and the Dutch Golden Age in which Dutch culture , as a whole, gained international prestige, consolidated the Dutch as an ethnic group.
By the middle of the 16th century an overarching, 'national' rather than 'ethnic' identity seemed in development in the Habsburg Netherlands, when inhabitants began to refer to it as their 'fatherland' and were beginning to be seen as a collective entity abroad; however, the persistence of language barriers, traditional strife between towns, and provincial particularism continued to form an impediment to more thorough unification.
For the first time in their history, the Dutch established their independence from foreign rule. The Northern provinces were free, but during the s the South was recaptured by Spain, and, despite various attempts, the armies of the Republic were unable to expel them.
The Dutch colonial empire Dutch: Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company and subsequently by the Dutch Republic — , and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after This and the innovations around it, has left behind a substantial legacy  despite the relatively small size of their country.
The Dutch people have been pioneers of capitalism ,   and their more recent emphasis on a modern economy, secularism , and a free market  ultimately had a huge influence on the great powers of the West, especially the British Empire , its Thirteen Colonies , and ultimately the United States.
The ideologies associated with Romantic Nationalism of the 19th and 20th centuries never really caught on in the Netherlands, and this, together with being a relatively mono-ethnic society up until the late s, has led to a relatively obscure use of the terms nation and ethnicity as both were largely overlapping in practice.
Today, despite other ethnicities making up The re definition of Dutch cultural identity has become a subject of public debate in recent years following the increasing influence of the European Union and the influx of non-Western immigrants in the post- World War II period.
In this debate 'typically Dutch traditions' have been put to the foreground. In sociological studies and governmental reports, ethnicity is often referred to with the terms autochtoon and allochtoon.
As did many European ethnicities during the 19th century,  the Dutch also saw the emerging of various Greater Netherlands - and pan -movements seeking to unite the Dutch-speaking peoples across the continent.
During the first half of the 20th century, there was a prolific surge in writings concerning the subject. The Germans however refused to do so, as this conflicted with their ultimate goal, the Neuordnung New Order of creating a single pan-German racial state.
The s marked the beginning of formal cultural and linguistic cooperation between Belgium Flanders and the Netherlands on an international scale.
The total number of Dutch can be defined in roughly two ways. By taking the total of all people with full Dutch ancestry, according to the current CBS definition, resulting in an estimated 16,, Dutch people, [note 1] or by the sum of all people with both full and partial Dutch ancestry, which would result in a number around 25,, Dutch is the main language spoken by most Dutch people.
It is a West Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people. Old Frankish, a precursor of the Dutch standard language, was first attested around ,  in a Frankish legal text, the Lex Salica , and has a written record of more than years, although the material before around is fragmentary and discontinuous.
Many West Germanic dialects underwent a series of sound shifts. The Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law and Anglo-Frisian brightening resulted in certain early Germanic languages evolving into what are now English and West Frisian, while the Second Germanic sound shift resulted in what would become High German.
Dutch underwent none of these sound changes and thus occupies a central position in the West Germanic languages group. Standard Dutch has a sound inventory of 13 vowels, 6 diphthongs and 23 consonants, of which the voiceless velar fricative hard ch is considered a well known sound, perceived as typical for the language.
Other relatively well known features of the Dutch language and usage are the frequent use of digraphs like Oo , Ee , Uu and Aa , the ability to form long compounds and the use of slang, including profanity.
The Dutch language has many dialects. Lastly, the dialectal situation is characterised by the major distinction between 'Hard G' and 'Soft G' speaking areas see also Dutch phonology.
Some linguists subdivide these into approximately 28 distinct dialects. Dutch immigrants also exported the Dutch language. Dutch was spoken by some settlers in the United States as a native language from the arrival of the first permanent Dutch settlers in , surviving in isolated ethnic pockets until about , when it ceased to be spoken except by first generation Dutch immigrants.
The Dutch language nevertheless had a significant impact on the region around New York. For example, of the inhabitants of New Zealand, 0.
In South Africa , Afrikaans is spoken, a daughter language of Dutch, which itself was an official language of South Africa until The Dutch, Flemish and Surinamese governments coordinate their language activities in the Nederlandse Taalunie Dutch Language Union , an institution also responsible for governing the Dutch Standard language, for example in matters of orthography.
As the tribes among the Germanic peoples began to differentiate its meaning began to change. At first the English language used the contemporary form of Dutch to refer to any or all of the Germanic speakers on the European mainland e.
Gradually its meaning shifted to the Germanic people they had most contact with, both because of their geographical proximity, but also because of the rivalry in trade and overseas territories: the people from the Republic of the Netherlands, the Dutch.
In the Dutch language , the Dutch refer to themselves as Nederlanders. Nederlanders derives from the Dutch word " Neder ", a cognate of English " Nether " both meaning " low ", and " near the sea " same meaning in both English and Dutch , a reference to the geographical texture of the Dutch homeland; the western portion of the North European Plain.
Dutch surnames and surnames of Dutch origin are generally easily recognizable. There are several main types of surnames in Dutch:.
Dutch names can differ greatly in spelling. Though written differently, pronunciation remains identical.
Surnames of Dutch migrants in foreign environments mainly the English-speaking world and Francophonie are often adapted, not only in pronunciation but also in spelling.
Prior to the arrival of Christianity, the ancestors of the Dutch adhered to a form of Germanic paganism augmented with various Celtic elements.
At the start of the 6th century, the first Hiberno-Scottish missionaries arrived. They were later replaced by Anglo-Saxon missionaries , who eventually succeeded in converting most of the inhabitants by the 8th century.
In the early 16th century, the Protestant Reformation began to form and soon spread in the Westhoek and the County of Flanders, where secret open-air sermons were held, called hagenpreken " hedgerow orations " in Dutch.
The ruler of the Dutch regions, Philip II of Spain , felt it was his duty to fight Protestantism and, after the wave of iconoclasm, sent troops to crush the rebellion and make the Low Countries a Catholic region once more.
After the Peace of Westphalia in , Protestantism did not spread South, resulting in a difference in religious situations that lasts to this day.
Contemporary Dutch are generally nominally Christians. One cultural division within Dutch culture is that between the Protestant North and the Catholic South, which encompasses various cultural differences between the Northern Dutch on one side and the Southern Dutch on the other.
This subject has historically received attention from historians, notably Pieter Geyl — and Carel Gerretson — The historical pluriformity of the Dutch cultural landscape has given rise to several theories aimed at both identifying and explaining cultural divergences between different regions.
One theory, proposed by A. Wichers in , sees differences in mentality between the southeastern, or 'higher', and northwestern, or 'lower' regions within the Netherlands, and seeks to explain these by referring to the different degrees to which these areas were feudalised during the Middle Ages.
The division is partially caused by traditional religious differences, with the North predominantly Protestant and the South having a majority of Catholics.
On a smaller scale cultural pluriformity can also be found; be it in local architecture or perceived character. This wide array of regional identities positioned within such a relatively small area, has often been attributed to the fact that many of the current Dutch provinces were de facto independent states for much of their history, as well as the importance of local Dutch dialects which often largely correspond with the provinces themselves to the people who speak them.
Northern Dutch culture is marked by Protestantism. Though today many do not adhere to Protestantism anymore, or are only nominally part of a congregation, Protestant- influenced values and custom are present.
Generally, it can be said the Northern Dutch are more pragmatic , favor a direct approach, and display a less-exuberant lifestyle when compared to Southerners.
Linguistically, Northerners speak any of the Hollandic , Zeelandic , and Dutch Low Saxon dialects natively, or are influenced by them when they speak the Standard form of Dutch.
Economically and culturally, the traditional centre of the region have been the provinces of North and South Holland , or today; the Randstad , although for a brief period during the 13th or 14th century it lay more towards the east, when various eastern towns and cities aligned themselves with the emerging Hanseatic League.
The entire Northern Dutch cultural area is located in the Netherlands , its ethnically Dutch population is estimated to be just under 10,, Frisians, specifically West Frisians , are an ethnic group present in the north of the Netherlands, mainly concentrated in the province of Friesland.
Culturally, modern Frisians and the Northern Dutch are rather similar; the main and generally most important difference being that Frisians speak West Frisian, one of the three sub-branches of the Frisian languages , alongside Dutch, and they find this to be a defining part of their identity as Frisians.
West Frisians are a part of the Interfrisian Council , established in , which works to promote and develop linguistic and cultural ties across the wider area of Frisia.
The council also calls upon the German and Dutch governments to promote the language and culture in respective regions.
Many West Frisians maintain cultural ties with the other Frisian groups in nearby areas, and across national borders.
The Southern Dutch sphere generally consists of the areas in which the population was traditionally Catholic.
During the early Middle Ages up until the Dutch Revolt , the Southern regions were more powerful, as well as more culturally and economically developed.
Southern Dutch culture has been influenced more by French culture, opposed to the Northern Dutch culture area. Within the field of ethnography , it is argued that the Dutch-speaking populations of the Netherlands and Belgium have a number of common characteristics, with a mostly shared language , some generally similar or identical customs , and with no clearly separate ancestral origin or origin myth.
However, the popular perception of being a single group varies greatly, depending on subject matter, locality, and personal background.
Generally, the Flemish will seldom identify themselves as being Dutch and vice versa, especially on a national level.
Though these stereotypes tend to ignore the transitional area formed by the Southern provinces of the Netherlands and most Northern reaches of Belgium, resulting in overgeneralizations.
In both cases, the Catholic Austrians and Flemish do not see themselves as sharing the fundamentally Protestant-based identities of their northern counterparts.
In the case of Belgium, there is the added influence of nationalism as the Dutch language and culture were oppressed by the francophone government.
This was followed by a nationalist backlash during the late 19th and early 20th centuries that saw little help from the Dutch government which for a long time following the Belgian Revolution had a reticent and contentious relationship with the newly formed Belgium and a largely indifferent attitude towards its Dutch-speaking inhabitants  and, hence, focused on pitting "Flemish" culture against French culture, resulting in the forming of the Flemish nation within Belgium, a consciousness of which can be very marked among some Dutch-speaking Belgians.
The largest patterns of human genetic variation within the Netherlands show strong correlations with geography and distinguish between: 1 North and South; 2 East and West; and 3 the middle-band and the rest of the country.
The distribution of gene variants for eye colour, metabolism, brain processes, body height and immune system show differences between these regions that reflect evolutionary selection pressures.
The largest genetic differences within the Netherlands are observed between the North and the South with the three major rivers - Rijn, Waal, Maas - as a border , with the Randstad showing a mixture of these two ancestral backgrounds.
The correlation with genome-wide homozygosity likely reflects the serial founder effect that was initiated with the ancient successive out-of-Africa migrations.
The North-South differences were likely maintained by the relatively strong segregation of the Catholic South and the Protestant North during the last centuries.
During the last 50 years or so there was a large increase of non-religious individuals in the Netherlands. Their spouses are more likely to come from a different genetic background than those of religious individuals, causing non-religious individuals to show lower levels of genome-wide homozygosity than Catholics or Protestants.
During the German eastward expansion mainly taking place between the 10th and 13th century ,  a number of Dutchmen moved as well.
They settled mainly east of the Elbe and Saale rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs  After the capture of territory along the Elbe and Havel Rivers in the s, Dutch settlers from flooded regions in Holland used their expertise to build dikes in Brandenburg , but also settled in and around major German cities such as Bremen and Hamburg and German regions of Mecklenburg and Brandenburg.
In the early-to-midth century, Mennonites began to move from the Low Countries especially Friesland and Flanders to the Vistula delta region in Royal Prussia , seeking religious freedom and exemption from military service.
The Mennonites emigrated to Russia. They were offered land along the Volga River. Some settlers left for Siberia in search for fertile land.
Arguably the most famous of which was Anna Mons , the mistress of Peter the Great. Cultural marks can still be found though.
In some villages and towns a Dutch Reformed church is present, and a number of border districts such as Cleves , Borken and Viersen have towns and village with an etymologically Dutch origin.
In the area around Cleves Ger. Kleve , Du. Since Company employees proved inept farmers, tracts of land were granted to married Dutch citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years in South Africa.
Some vrijburgers eventually turned to cattle ranching as trekboers , creating their own distinct sub-culture centered around a semi-nomadic lifestyle and isolated patriarchal communities.
Afrikaners are dominated by two main groups, the Cape Dutch and Boers , which are partly defined by different traditions of society, law, and historical economic bases.
Dutch was taught to South African students as late as and a few upper-class Afrikaners used it in polite society, but the first Afrikaans literature had already appeared in During the s, Dutch immigration to South Africa began to increase exponentially for the first time in over a hundred years.
The country registered a net gain of around 45, Dutch immigrants between and , making it the sixth most popular destination for citizens of the Netherlands living abroad.
In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter. Most of the time Dutch soldiers intermarried with local women and settled down in the colonies.
Through the centuries there developed a relatively large Dutch-speaking population of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, known as Indos or Dutch-Indonesians.
The expulsion of Dutchmen following the Indonesian Revolt , means that currently the majority of this group lives in the Netherlands.
Statistics show that Indos are in fact the largest minority group in the Netherlands and number close to half a million excluding the third generation.
Though many Ghanaians of European origin are mostly of British origin, there are a small number of Dutch people in Ghana. The forts in Ghana have a small number of a Dutch population.
The most of the Dutch population is held in the place where the Netherlands has its embassy. Though the Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia and New Zealand, colonization did not take place and it was only after World War II that a sharp increase in Dutch emigration to Australia occurred.
Poor economic prospects for many Dutchmen as well as increasing demographic pressures, in the post-war Netherlands were a powerful incentive to emigrate.
Due to Australia experiencing a shortage of agricultural and metal industry workers it, and to a lesser extent New Zealand, seemed an attractive possibility, with the Dutch government actively promoting emigration.
The effects of Dutch migration to Australia can still be felt. There are many Dutch associations and a Dutch-language newspaper continues to be published.
The Dutch have remained a tightly knit community, especially in the large cities. In total, about , people of Dutch ancestry live in Australia whereas New Zealand has some , Dutch descendants.
Nevertheless, many Dutch communities remained virtually isolated towards the rest of America up until the American Civil War , in which the Dutch fought for the North and adopted many American ways.
Most future waves of Dutch immigrants were quickly assimilated. Roosevelt 32nd, elected to four terms in office, he served from to , the only U.
Bush 41st and George W. Bush 43rd , the latter two descendant from the Schuyler family. The largest wave was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when large numbers of Dutch helped settle the Canadian west.
During this period significant numbers also settled in major cities like Toronto. After the war a large number of Dutch immigrants moved to Canada, including a number of war brides of the Canadian soldiers who liberated the Low Countries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. This article is about the ethnic group known as the Dutch and their descendants worldwide.
For information on the population of the Netherlands, see Demographics of the Netherlands. For the language, see Dutch language. For other uses, see Dutch.
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