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House Committee on the Judiciary. There has been controversy over both the ethics and scientific rigor of the Stanford prison experiment since nearly the beginning, and it has never been successfully replicated.
From the beginning, I have always said it's a demonstration. The only thing that makes it an experiment is the random assignment to prisoners and guards, that's the independent variable.
There is no control group. There's no comparison group. So it doesn't fit the standards of what it means to be "an experiment.
In , in response to criticism by Le Texier and others, Philip Zimbardo wrote a detailed rebuttal on his website. In his summary, he wrote:.
I hereby assert that none of these criticisms present any substantial evidence that alters the SPE's main conclusion concerning the importance of understanding how systemic and situational forces can operate to influence individual behavior in negative or positive directions, often without our personal awareness.
The SPE's core message is not that a psychological simulation of prison life is the same as the real thing, or that prisoners and guards always or even usually behave the way that they did in the SPE.
Rather, the SPE serves as a cautionary tale of what might happen to any of us if we underestimate the extent to which the power of social roles and external pressures can influence our actions.
In turn, Le Texier published a peer-reviewed article which used videos, recordings, and notes from the experiment in Stanford University Archives to argue that "The guards knew what results the experiment was supposed to produce Some of the guards' behavior allegedly led to dangerous and psychologically damaging situations.
According to Zimbardo's report, one third of the guards were judged to have exhibited "genuine sadistic tendencies", while many prisoners were emotionally traumatized, and three of them had to be removed from the experiment early.
Zimbardo concluded that both prisoners and guards had become deeply absorbed in their roles and realized that he had likewise become as deeply absorbed in his own, and he terminated the experiment.
Ethical concerns surrounding the experiment often draw comparisons to a similar experiment , conducted ten years earlier in at Yale University by Stanley Milgram.
With the treatment that the guards were given to the prisoners, the guards would become so deeply absorbed into their role as a guard that they would emotionally, physically and mentally humiliate the prisoners:.
He was then deloused with a spray, to convey our belief that he may have germs or lice[ Our goal was to produce similar effects quickly by putting men in a dress without any underclothes.
Indeed, as soon as some of our prisoners were put in these uniforms they began to walk and to sit differently, and to hold themselves differently — more like a woman than like a man.
These guards had taken their role seriously when Zimbardo had assigned them their role. These participants were stripped from their identity of who they are from the outside world, were given ID numbers and were referred to as so.
Because of the nature of the experiment, Zimbardo found it impossible to keep traditional scientific controls in place. He was unable to remain a neutral observer , since he influenced the direction of the experiment as the prison's superintendent.
Conclusions and observations drawn by the experimenters were largely subjective and anecdotal , and the experiment is practically impossible for other researchers to accurately reproduce.
Erich Fromm claimed to see generalizations in the experiment's results and argued that the personality of an individual does affect behavior when imprisoned.
This ran counter to the study's conclusion that the prison situation itself controls the individual's behavior.
Fromm also argued that the amount of sadism in the "normal" subjects could not be determined with the methods employed to screen them.
Carlo Prescott, who was Zimbardo's "prison consultant" during the experiment by virtue of having served 17 years in San Quentin for attempted murder, spoke out against the experiment publicly in a article he contributed to the Stanford Daily , after he had read about the various ways in which Zimbardo and others used the experiment to explain atrocities that had taken place in real prisons.
To allege that all these carefully tested, psychologically solid, upper-middle-class Caucasian "guards" dreamed this up on their own is absurd.
How can Zimbardo and, by proxy, Maverick Entertainment express horror at the behavior of the "guards" when they were merely doing what Zimbardo and others, myself included, encouraged them to do at the outset or frankly established as ground rules?
In , digitized recordings available on the official SPE website were widely discussed, particularly one where "prison warden" David Jaffe tried to influence the behavior of one of the "guards" by encouraging him to "participate" more and be more "tough" for the benefit of the experiment.
The study was criticized in for demand characteristics by psychologist Peter Gray, who argued that participants in psychological experiments are more likely to do what they believe the researchers want them to do, and specifically in the case of the Stanford prison experiment, "to act out their stereotyped views of what prisoners and guards do.
He further intensified his actions because he was nicknamed " John Wayne " by the other participants, even though he was trying to mimic actor Strother Martin , who had played the role of the sadistic prison Captain in the movie.
What came over me was not an accident. It was planned. I set out with a definite plan in mind, to try to force the action, force something to happen, so that the researchers would have something to work with.
After all, what could they possibly learn from guys sitting around like it was a country club? So I consciously created this persona.
I was in all kinds of drama productions in high school and college. It was something I was very familiar with: to take on another personality before you step out on the stage.
I was kind of running my own experiment in there, by saying, "How far can I push these things and how much abuse will these people take before they say, 'knock it off?
They seemed to join in. They were taking my lead. Not a single guard said, "I don't think we should do this. In his rebuttal, Zimbardo wrote that Eshelman's actions had gone "far beyond simply playing the role of a tough guard", and that his and the other guards' acts, given "their striking parallels with real-world prison atrocities", "tell us something important about human nature".
Two students from the "prisoners" group left the experiment before it was terminated on the sixth day. Douglas Korpi was the first to leave, after 36 hours; he had a seeming mental breakdown in which he yelled "Jesus Christ, I'm burning up inside!
I just can't take it anymore! He had originally thought that he could study while "imprisoned", but the "prison staff" would not allow him.
In his rebuttal, Zimbardo noted that Korpi's description of his actions had changed several times before the interview, and that in Zimbardo's documentary Quiet Rage Korpi had stated that the experiment "was the most upsetting experience of his life".
Critics contend that not only was the sample size too small for extrapolation, but also having all of the experimental subjects be US male students gravely undercut the experiment's validity.
In other words, it is conceivable that replicating the experiment using a diverse group of people with different objectives and views in life  would have produced radically distinct results.
Researchers from Western Kentucky University argued that selection bias may have played a role in the results. The researchers recruited students for a study using an advertisement similar to the one used in the Stanford Prison Experiment, with some ads saying "a psychological study" the control group , and some with the words "prison life" as originally worded in Dr.
Zimbardo's experiment. It was found that students who responded to the classified advertisement for the "prison life" were higher in traits such as social dominance , aggression , authoritarianism , etc.
The experiment was perceived by many to involve questionable ethics, the most serious concern being that it was continued even after participants expressed their desire to withdraw.
Despite the fact that participants were told they had the right to leave at any time, Zimbardo did not allow this.
Since the time of the Stanford Prison Experiment, ethical guidelines have been established for experiments involving human subjects.
Before they are implemented, human studies must now be reviewed and found by an institutional review board US or ethics committee UK to be in accordance with ethical guidelines set by the American Psychological Association.
A post-experimental debriefing is now considered an important ethical consideration to ensure that participants are not harmed in any way by their experience in an experiment.
Though Zimbardo did conduct debriefing sessions, they were several years after the Stanford prison experiment. By that time numerous details were forgotten; nonetheless, many participants reported that they experienced no lasting negative effects.
If there is an unavoidable delay in debriefing, the researcher is obligated to take steps to minimize harm. With how the results of this experiment had ended, there have been some stir in ethical consequences involving this experiment.
This study received much criticism with the lack of full consent from the participants with the knowledge from Zimbardo that he himself could not have predicted how the experiment would have turned out to be.
With the participants playing the roles of prisoners and guards, there was no certain fact that they would get the help that they need in process of this study.
When acts of prisoner torture and abuse at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq were publicized in March , Zimbardo himself, who paid close attention to the details of the story, was struck by the similarity with his own experiment.
He was dismayed by official military and government representatives' shifting the blame for the torture and abuses in the Abu Ghraib American military prison onto "a few bad apples" rather than acknowledging the possibly systemic problems of a formally established military incarceration system.
Eventually, Zimbardo became involved with the defense team of lawyers representing one of the Abu Ghraib prison guards, Staff Sergeant Ivan "Chip" Frederick.
He was granted full access to all investigation and background reports, and testified as an expert witness in SSG Frederick's court martial , which resulted in an eight-year prison sentence for Frederick in October Their results and conclusions differed from Zimbardo's and led to a number of publications on tyranny, stress , and leadership.
While Haslam and Reicher's procedure was not a direct replication of Zimbardo's, their study casts further doubt on the generality of his conclusions.
Specifically, it questions the notion that people slip mindlessly into role and the idea that the dynamics of evil are in any way banal.
Their research also points to the importance of leadership in the emergence of tyranny of the form displayed by Zimbardo when briefing guards in the Stanford experiment.
The Stanford prison experiment was in part a response to the Milgram experiment at Yale beginning in and published in The Third Wave experiment involved the use of authoritarian dynamics similar to Nazi Party methods of mass control in a classroom setting by high school teacher Ron Jones in Palo Alto, California , in with the goal of demonstrating to the class in a vivid way how the German public in World War II could have acted in the way it did.
In both experiments, participants found it difficult to leave the study due to the roles they were assigned.
Both studies examine human nature and the effects of authority. Personalities of the subjects had little influence on both experiments despite the test prior to the prison experiment.
In the Milgram and the Zimbardo studies, participants conform to social pressures. Conformity is strengthened by allowing some participants to feel more or less powerful than others.
In both experiments, behavior is altered to match the group stereotype. One famous study in obedience was created by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University.
He came up with an idea for an experiment focusing on the conflicting decisions between obedience to authority and inner conscience.
However the teacher who is the participant does not know that the student is in on the experiment and is not actually another participant.
The teacher, being unable to see the student, would hear a prerecorded response from the student towards the shock.
The teacher would ask the experimenter to stop and end the test, but the latter would not let them and make the teacher continue the test.
The teacher would do so because of the higher authority of the experimenter. Comparing this to the Stanford prison experiment, both participants were influenced by higher authority and this has created a stir of ethical issues between these two experiments.
The film Das Experiment starring Moritz Bleibtreu is based on the experiment. The film The Stanford Prison Experiment is based on the experiment.
In The Overstory by Richard Powers, the fictional character Douglas Pavlicek is a prisoner in the experiment, an experience which shapes later decisions.
In episode 7 of television show Battleground , Political Machine, one of the characters divides a group of elementary school children into prisoners and guards.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the psychology experiment. For the American pop punk band, see Stanford Prison Experiment band.
For the film, see The Stanford Prison Experiment film. For the experiment on delayed gratification, see Stanford marshmallow experiment. Main article: Milgram experiment.
San Francisco Bay Area portal. September 7, Archived from the original on September 9, We just learned it was a fraud".
June 13, American Psychologist. Retrieved June 15, Slide 4. Archived from the original on May 12, August 12, Retrieved July 12, In the prison-conscious autumn of , when George Jackson was killed at San Quentin and Attica erupted in even more deadly rebellion and retribution, the Stanford Prison Experiment made news in a big way.
It offered the world a videotaped demonstration of how ordinary people, middle-class college students, can do things they would have never believed they were capable of doing.
It seemed to say, as Hannah Arendt said of Adolf Eichmann, that normal people can take ghastly actions. Social Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies.
Retrieved February 2, International Journal of Criminology and Penology. Archived from the original on January 20, Retrieved November 11, Stanford Alumni Magazine.
In , an investigation by the American Psychological Association concluded that the prison study had satisfied the profession's existing ethical standards.
But in subsequent years, those guidelines were revised to prohibit human-subject simulations modeled on the SPE.
July 12, The Stanford Prison Experiment. New York: Random House. Seattle protest zone prompts rethink on policing. Phil Murphy ends restrictions on bars, whichever comes sooner.
Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near experiment experientialism experientialist experiential time experiment experimental experimental design experimental engineer.
Accessed 27 Jun. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for experiment experiment. Entry 1 of 2 : a scientific test in which you perform a series of actions and carefully observe their effects in order to learn about something : something that is done as a test : something that you do to see how well or how badly it works experiment.
Entry 1 of 2 : a trial or test made to find out about something experiment. Entry 1 of 2 1 : a procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect or law, to test or establish a hypothesis, or to illustrate a known law 2 : the process of testing : experimentation experiment.
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