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Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe.
The Römer area was later rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for events such as Christmas markets.
Other parts of the old town were reconstructed as part of the Dom-Römer Project from to Frankonovurd in Old High German or Vadum Francorum in Latin were the first names mentioned in written records from It transformed to Frankenfort during the Middle Ages and then to Franckfort and Franckfurth in the modern era.
According to historian David Gans , the city was named c. He hoped thereby to perpetuate the name of his lineage.
English ford where the river was shallow enough to be crossed on foot. By the 19th century, the name Frankfurt had been established as the official spelling.
The older English spelling of Frankfort is now rarely seen in reference to Frankfurt am Main, although more than a dozen other towns and cities, mainly in the United States, use this spelling e.
The suffix am Main has been used regularly since the 14th century. Frankfurt is located on an ancient ford German: Furt on the Main River.
As a part of early Franconia , the inhabitants were the early Franks , thus the city's name reveals its legacy as "the ford of the Franks on the Main".
Among English speakers, the city is commonly known simply as Frankfurt, but Germans occasionally call it by its full name to distinguish it from the other significantly smaller German city of Frankfurt an der Oder in the Land of Brandenburg on the Polish border.
The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times, thought to be derived from bona me n sa good table.
The common abbreviations for the city, primarily used in railway services and on road signs, are Frankfurt Main , Frankfurt M , Frankfurt a.
The common abbreviation for the name of the city is "FFM". Roman settlements were established in the area of the Römer , probably in the first century.
Nida Heddernheim was also a Roman civitas capital. Alemanni and Franks lived there , and by , Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd alternative spellings end with -furt and -vurd was first mentioned.
Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire. From , the German kings and emperors were elected and crowned in Aachen.
From , the kings and emperors were crowned in Frankfurt, initiated for Maximilian II. This tradition ended in , when Franz II was elected.
His coronation was deliberately held on Bastille Day , 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. The elections and coronations took place in St.
Bartholomäus Cathedral , known as the Kaiserdom Emperor's Cathedral , or its predecessors. In , Emperor Friedrich II granted an imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the empire.
The fair became particularly important when similar fairs in French Beaucaire lost attraction around Book trade fairs began in In , Frankfurt traders established a system of exchange rates for the various currencies that were circulating to prevent cheating and extortion.
Therein lay the early roots for the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War , but suffered from the bubonic plague that refugees brought to the city.
After the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth. In the late s the theatre principal Abel Seyler was based in Frankfurt, and established the city's theatrical life.
Following the French Revolution , Frankfurt was occupied or bombarded several times by French troops. This meant that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine.
In , Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from to , when the military tide turned in favour of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies that overturned the Napoleonic order.
After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna — dissolved the grand-duchy and Frankfurt became a fully sovereign city state with a republican form of government.
Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation till as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag , the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".
After the ill-fated revolution of , Frankfurt was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament , which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche St.
Paul's Church and was opened on 18 May The institution failed in when the Prussian king, Frederick William IV , declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter".
In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.
Frankfurt lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War in when Prussia annexed several smaller states, among them the Free City of Frankfurt.
The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The Prussian occupation and annexation was perceived as a great injustice in Frankfurt, which retained its distinct western European, urban and cosmopolitan character.
The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in This marked the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest.
From 6 April to 17 May , following military intervention to put down the Ruhr uprising , Frankfurt was occupied by French troops.
During the Nazi era , the synagogues of the city were destroyed. Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II — About 5, residents were killed during the raids, and the once-famous medieval city centre , by that time the largest in Germany, was almost completely destroyed.
It became a ground battlefield on 26 March , when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault.
The 5th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse- Darmstadt and the Prussian Hesse provinces.
The city was part of the American Zone of Occupation of Germany. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital city of the newly founded state of West Germany in The city constructed a parliament building that was never used for its intended purpose it housed the radio studios of Hessischer Rundfunk.
In the end, Konrad Adenauer , the first postwar Chancellor , preferred the town of Bonn , for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also because many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt would be accepted as the permanent capital, thereby weakening the West German population's support for a reunification with East Germany and the eventual return of the capital to Berlin.
Postwar reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple modern style, thus changing Frankfurt's architectural face.
A few landmark buildings were reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner e. Paul's Church , and Goethe House.
The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah documents of the Municipal Library was destroyed by the bombing. According to Arabist and Genizah scholar S.
Goitein , "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived. The end of the war marked Frankfurt's comeback as Germany's leading financial centre, mainly because Berlin, now a city divided into four sectors , could no longer rival it.
In , the allies founded the Bank deutscher Länder , the forerunner of Deutsche Bundesbank. Following this decision, more financial institutions were re-established, e.
Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank. In the s, Frankfurt Stock Exchange regained its position as the country's leading stock exchange.
Frankfurt also re-emerged as Germany's transportation centre and Frankfurt Airport became Europe's second-busiest airport behind London Heathrow Airport in During the s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems.
Frankfurt is the largest city in the federated state of Hesse in the south-western part of Germany. Frankfurt is located on both sides of the Main River , south-east of the Taunus mountain range.
The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest , Germany's largest city forest. The city area is The city centre is north of the River Main in Altstadt district the historical centre and the surrounding Innenstadt district.
The geographical centre is in Bockenheim district near Frankfurt West station. Frankfurt is the centre of the densely populated Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region with a population of 5.
The city is divided into 46 city districts Stadtteile , which are in turn divided into city boroughs Stadtbezirke and electoral districts Wahlbezirke.
The 46 city districts combine into 16 area districts Ortsbezirke , which each have a district committee and chairperson.
The largest city district by population and area is Sachsenhausen , while the smallest is Altstadt , Frankfurt's historical center. Three larger city districts Sachsenhausen, Westend and Nordend are divided for administrative purposes into a northern -Nord and a southern -Süd part, respectively a western -West and an eastern -Ost part, but are generally considered as one city district which is why often only 43 city districts are mentioned, even on the City's official website.
Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt part of Niederursel , Heddernheim and Praunheim , Goldstein part of Schwanheim , Riedberg part of Kalbach-Riedberg and Europaviertel part of Gallus.
The Bankenviertel banking district , Frankfurt's financial district, is also not an administrative city district it covers parts of the western Innenstadt district, the southern Westend district and the eastern Bahnhofsviertel district.
Many city districts are incorporated suburbs Vororte , or were previously independent cities, such as Höchst. Some like Nordend and Westend arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit following the Unification of Germany , while others were formed from territory which previously belonged to other city district s , such as Dornbusch and Riederwald.
Until the year the city's territory consisted of the present-day inner-city districts of Altstadt , Innenstadt , Bahnhofsviertel , Gutleutviertel , Gallus , Westend , Nordend , Ostend and Sachsenhausen.
Bornheim was part of an administrative district called Landkreis Frankfurt , before becoming part of the city on 1 January , followed by Bockenheim on 1 April Seckbach , Niederrad and Oberrad followed on 1 July In the same year a new city district, Riederwald , was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend.
Simultaneously the Landkreis Höchst was dispersed with its member cities either joining Frankfurt Fechenheim , Griesheim , Nied , Schwanheim , Sossenheim or joining the newly established Landkreis of Main-Taunus-Kreis.
Dornbusch became a city district in It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim.
Bergen-Enkheim was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on 1 January Flughafen became an official city district in It covers the area of Frankfurt Airport that had belonged to Sachsenhausen and the neighbouring city of Mörfelden-Walldorf.
Frankfurt's youngest city district is Frankfurter Berg. It was part of Bonames until Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg.
Together with these towns and some larger nearby towns, e. The urban area had an estimated population of 2.
Frankfurt has a temperate - oceanic climate Köppen : Cfb. Its average annual temperature is With a population of , within its administrative boundaries  and of 2,, in the actual urban area ,  Frankfurt is the fifth largest city in Germany after Berlin , Hamburg, Munich and Cologne.
With , residents in , it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to , before World War II.
After the war, at the end of the year , the number had dropped to , In the following years, the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of , in It dropped again to , in but has increased since then.
According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to , within its administrative boundaries in and more than 2.
During the s, the state government of Hesse wanted to include the entire urban area into its administrative boundaries.
This would have made Frankfurt officially the second largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants.
According to data from the city register of residents , For the first time, a majority of the city residents had an at least part non-German background.
According to statistics, Because of this, the city is often considered to be a multicultural city and has been compared to New York City and London.
Frankfurt was historically a Protestant -dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved there.
The Jewish community has a history dating back to Medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany. Two synagogues operate there.
Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community.
The Ahmadiyya Noor Mosque , constructed in , is the city's largest mosque and the third largest in Germany.
As of [update] , the largest Christian denominations were Catholicism Frankfurt is one of five independent district-free cities kreisfreie Städte in Hesse , which means that it does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity, in this case it is not part of a Landkreis.
The other four cities are the second to fifth largest cities in Hesse: Wiesbaden , Kassel , Darmstadt and Offenbach am Main.
A kreisfreie Stadt has territorial sovereignty within its defined city limits. Frankfurt is twinned with:.
Partnerships and city friendships are a weaker form of cooperation than the sister city relationship, acting more like a fixed-term cooperation or limited to certain projects.
Frankfurt has partnerships with the following cities:. Römer , the German word for Roman , is a complex of nine houses that form the Frankfurt city hall Rathaus.
The houses were acquired by the city council in from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with its neighbours.
The Kaisersaal "Emperor's Hall" is located on the upper floor and is where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets.
The surrounding square, the Römerberg, is named after the city hall. The former Altstadt old town quarter between the Römer and the Frankfurt Cathedral was redeveloped as the Dom-Römer Quarter from to , including 15 reconstructions of historical buildings that were destroyed during World War II.
Frankfurt Cathedral Frankfurter Dom is not a cathedral, but the main Catholic church, dedicated to St. The Gothic building was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time.
From onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from to , Roman-German emperors were crowned there.
Since the 18th century, St. Bartholomew's has been called Dom , although it was never a bishop's seat. In it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present style.
It was again partially destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in the s. Its height is 95 meters. The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 meters, accessed through a narrow spiral staircase with steps.
Paul's Church Paulskirche is a national historic monument in Germany because it was the seat of the first democratically elected parliament in It was established in as a Protestant church, but was not completed until The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power.
In Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force and the parliament dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.
Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly its interior, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is used mainly for exhibitions and events.
The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest recovered buildings: an ancient Roman settlement and the Frankfurt Royal Palace Kaiserpfalz Frankfurt from the 6th century.
The garden is located between the Römerberg and the Cathedral. It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt.
The remains were preserved and are now open to the public. There are plans underway to construct a building on top of the garden but anyhow it is decided that the garden will stay open to the public.
Wertheim House is the only timbered house in the Altstadt district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II undamaged. It is located on the Römerberg next to the Historical Museum.
The Saalhof is the oldest conserved building in the Altstadt district and dates to the 12th century. It was used as an exhibition hall by Dutch clothiers when trade fairs were held during the 14th and 15th century.
Today it serves as a part of the Historical Museum. It was built in and was the second bridge to cross the river. Today some 10, people cross the bridge on a daily basis.
The Alte Oper is a former opera house , hence the name "Old Opera". The opera house was built in by architect Richard Lucae.
Until the late s, it was a ruin, nicknamed "Germany's most beautiful ruin". Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously.
Public pressure led to its refurbishment and reopening in Today, it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Frankfurt Opera.
The Eschenheim Tower Eschenheimer Turm was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of late-medieval fortifications.
It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt district. Catherine's Church. Catherine's Church Katharinenkirche is the largest Protestant church, dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria , a martyred early Christian saint.
It is located in the city centre at the entrance to the Zeil, the central pedestrian shopping street. Although today Hauptwache is mostly associated with the inner-city underground train station of the same name , the name originates from a baroque building on the square above the station.
The Hauptwache building was constructed in and was used as a prison, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house".
Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" formal: An der Hauptwache. It is situated in the city centre opposite to St.
Frankfurt Central Station Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof , which opened in , was built as the central train station for Frankfurt to replace three smaller train stations in the city centre and to boost the needed capacity for travellers.
It was constructed as a terminus station and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until when Leipzig Central Station was opened.
Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance -style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in was constructed in neoclassic -style.
The Frankfurter Hof is a landmarked hotel in the city centre at Kaiserplatz, built from to It is part of Steigenberger Hotels group and is considered the city's most prestigious.
Leonhard , on the Main close to the bridge Eiserner Steg, is a Catholic late Gothic hall church , derived from a Romanesque style basilica beginning in The parish serves the English-speaking community.
The church has been under restoration since It hosts 17 out of Germany's 18 skyscrapers. For centuries, St. Bartholomeus's Cathedral was the tallest structure.
The first high-rise building boom came in the s when Westend Gate then called Plaza Büro Center and Silberturm were constructed and became the tallest buildings in Germany with a height of None of the buildings constructed during the s surpassed Silberturm.
The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers at Taunusanlage, both The s featured a second wave.
Messeturm , built on the trade fair site, reached a height of Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstrasse 1 In 21st-century Frankfurt, more high-rise buildings and skyscrapers e.
With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas.
With more than 30 museums, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. Ten museums are located on the southern riverbank in Sachsenhausen between the Eiserner Steg and the Friedensbrücke.
The street itself, Schaumainkai , is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for Frankfurt's largest flea market.
Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt district are:. Another important museum is located in the Westend district:.
Eurodance and Trance music originated in Frankfurt. By doing so a new genre was born: Eurodance. Some of the early and most influential Eurodance, Trance and Techno acts, e.
Frankfurt offers a variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs. Restaurants, bars and pubs concentrate in Sachsenhausen , Nordend , Bornheim and Bockenheim.
One of the main venues of the early Trance music sound was the Omen nightclub closed Because of the location at the airport the club had no restrictions regarding opening hours.
The club had to close at the end of because of stricter fire safety regulations. Also notable for its extraordinary design was Coocoon Club in Fechenheim which opened in was and voted best techno club of the year by music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" in , , and It closed in The airport has four runways and serves non-stop destinations.
Run by transport company Fraport it ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe.
The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. It is the busiest airport in Europe in terms of cargo traffic, and the fourth busiest in Europe in terms of passenger traffic behind London Heathrow Airport , Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.
Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in was 69,, passengers. A third terminal is being constructed plan to open in The third terminal will increase the capacity of the airport to over 90 million passengers per year.
The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic.
Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus. An hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station , taking just over 2 hours .
Passenger traffic at Hahn Airport in was 3. Frankfurt is a traffic hub for the German motorway Autobahn system.
With approximately , cars passing through it every day it is Europe's most heavily used interchange.
The Bundesautobahn A is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south Egelsbach , runs through the eastern part and ends in the north Oberursel.
The Bundesautobahn A is a very short motorway in the western part which primarily serves as a fast connection between the A 66 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair.
The A5 in the west, the A3 in the south and the A in the north-east form a ring road around the inner city districts and define a Low-emission zone Umweltzone ; established in , meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria to enter the zone.
The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour. Car parks are located throughout the city and especially in the city centre.
By daily passenger volume, it ranks second together with Munich Central Station , each after Hamburg Central Station , It is located between the Gallus , the Gutleutviertel and the Bahnhofsviertel district, not far away from the trade fair and the financial district.
It serves as a major hub for long-distance trains InterCity , ICE and regional trains as well as for Frankfurt's public transport system.
Regional and local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund RMV , the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world, after Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg.
Frankfurt Airport can be accessed by two railway stations: Frankfurt Airport long-distance station Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof is only for long-distance traffic and connects the airport to the main rail network, with most of the ICE services using the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.
The long-distance station is located outside the actual airport ground but has a connecting bridge for pedestrians to Terminal 1, concourse B.
The regional station is located within Terminal 1, concourse B. Two other major railway stations in the city centre are Konstablerwache and Hauptwache, located on each end of the Zeil.
They are the main stations to change from east-to-west-bound S-Bahn trains to north-to-south-bound U-Bahn trains.
Konstablerwache station is the second-busiest railway station regarding daily passenger volume , after the central station. The third-busiest railway station is Hauptwache station , The city has two rapid transit systems: the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn, as well as an above-ground tram system.
Most routes have at least minute service during the day, either by one line running every 15 minutes, or by two lines servicing one route at a minute interval.
When leaving the city the S-Bahn travels above ground. The trains that run on the U-Bahn are in fact light rail Stadtbahn as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre.
The minimum service interval is 2. Frankfurt has ten tram lines 11, 12, 14 to 21 , with trams arriving usually every 10 minutes.
Many sections are served by two lines, combining to run at 5-minute intervals during rush-hour. Trams only run above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the S-Bahn.
A number of bus lines complete the Frankfurt public transport system. Taxicabs can usually be found outside the major S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations, at the central station, the south station, the airport, the trade fair and in the crowded inner-city shopping streets.
The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street.
Uber ceased operations in Frankfurt on 9 November after operating in the city for 18 months. Deutsche Bahn makes bicycles available for hire through their Call a Bike service.
The bicycles are stationed all over the city, including at selected railway stations. They can easily be spotted because of their eye-catching silver-red colour.
To rent a specific bike, riders either call a service number to get an unlock code or reserve the bike via the smartphone application.
To return the bike, the rider locks it within a designated return area and calls the service number, if not booked via the app.
Nextbike also makes bicycles available for hire in Frankfurt. They are stationed all over the city. These can be spotted with their blue color scheme.
Cycle rickshaws velotaxis , a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver, are also available.
These are allowed to operate in pedestrian-only areas and are therefore practical for sightseeing. Frankfurt has a network of cycle routes.
Many long-distance bike routes into the city have cycle tracks that are separate from motor vehicle traffic. A number of roads in the city centre are "bicycle streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised vehicles are only allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle users.
In addition, cyclists are allowed to ride many cramped one-way streets in both directions. As of [update] , 15 percent of citizens used bicycles.
Frankfurt is one of the world's most important financial centres and Germany's financial capital, followed by Munich.
The city's importance as a financial centre has risen since the eurozone crisis. Indications are the establishment of two institutions of the European System of Financial Supervisors European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board in and the Single Supervisory Mechanism by which the European Central Bank was to assume responsibility for specific supervisory tasks related to the financial stability of the biggest and most important Eurozone banks.
With over jobs per 1, inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. On work days and Saturdays one million people commute from all over the Rhein-Main-Area.
The city is expected to benefit from international banks relocating jobs from London to Frankfurt as a result of Brexit to retain access to the EU market.
The European Central Bank Europäische Zentralbank is one of the world's most important central banks.
The new building complex was designed to accommodate up to 2, ECB personnel. The location is a few kilometres away from the city centre and borders an industrial area as well as the Osthafen East Harbour , It was primarily chosen because of its large premises which allows the ECB to install security arrangements without high fences.
The Bundesbank was greatly respected for its control of inflation through the second half of the 20th century.
In , 63 national and international banks had a registered office, including the headquarters of the major German banks, as well as 41 offices of international banks.
Many international banks have a registered or a representative office, e. By the 16th century Frankfurt had developed into an important European hub for trade fairs and financial services.
The most important stock market index is the DAX , the index of the 30 largest German business companies listed at the stock exchange.
Deutsche Börse also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and clearing company Clearstream. Trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra trading system , with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers on the new platform.
These markets are at the heart of the financial system and it is crucial for the whole European economy that they remain competitive.
We tried to find a solution, but the remedies offered fell far short of resolving the concerns. It is located in the city centre at the Börsenplatz.
In the 12th century the Hohenstaufen dynasty erected a new castle in Frankfurt and walled the town. Frankfurt am Main was a free imperial city from until , when Napoleon I made it the seat of government for the prince primate of the Confederation of the Rhine.
In the city became the capital of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, created by Napoleon. From , when Napoleon fell, Frankfurt was again a free city, where in —49 the Frankfurt National Assembly met.
From to the city was the seat of the German Bundestag Federal Diet and thus the capital of Germany. It was only after its integration into a united Germany that Frankfurt developed into a large industrial city.
The Old Town was mostly destroyed by Allied bombing campaigns in , however, and was subsequently rebuilt with multistory office buildings and other modern structures.
Other historical landmarks include the foot- metre- tall Eschenheimer Tower —28 ; the red sandstone cathedral, which was dedicated to St.
Bartholomew in ; and the Paulskirche, which was the meeting place of the first Frankfurt National Assembly. International trade fairs have been held in Frankfurt since , and the city is now a leading commercial, financial, and high-technology centre.
There is an important stock exchange first established in The Rothschild family started building its international banking empire in Frankfurt.
Annual book, automobile, and computer fairs are popular events, and there are many other fairs held throughout the year.
Manufactures include automobiles, machinery, chemical and pharmaceutical products, printing materials, and foodstuffs. The city is traditionally known for its production of high-quality sausages frankfurters.
Frankfurt has long been a key stopping point for river, rail, and road traffic from Switzerland and southern Germany northward along the Rhine River to the Ruhr region and across the Main River to north-central Germany.
It is still the chief traffic hub for western Germany and has also been an important inland shipping port since the canalization of the Main in the s.
Frankfurt Airport is the largest airport in Germany and one of the busiest in Europe. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt is among the largest institutions of higher education in Germany.
Adjoining it is the Goethe Museum and Library. Frankfurt am Main. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback.
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